Water Pollution

We need to stop making emphasis on what will make us more comfortable, because if we don’t soon we will not have a world to live in and we will all die. Then how important will living comfortable be. How Pollution Affects us and Our Surroundings Pollution occurs when harmful substances are released into the environment, causing damage to living things. This is caused by humans and complex organisms everyday It is difficult to actually say what exactly pollution is because some environmental elements that are pollutants to certain species maybe desirable nutrients to others.

A dictionary defines pollution as the contamination of one substance by another so that the former is unfit for its intended use. Since us humans are basically inefficient, wasteful, and inconsiderate to our surroundings we make up most of the pollution that is currently affecting us because of the whole industrial origin and human growth population. Pollution takes many different forms: noise, radio waves and even heat. The more obvious types are solid litter, fumes from car exhausts and our lack of recycling (Beefcake, page 5).

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Some of the main causes for the existence of these substances are our growing technology making it mandatory for industrial growth making way for industrial emissions that are escaping into the air, nuclear waste plants having to be add to make human waste valuable in some way since so much was being produced. When fossil fuels in homes and vehicles such as coal and gas are burned they produce sulfur and nitrogen, which react with damp air to make sulfuric and nitric acids.

If the air is dry the reaction takes place very slowly As in result of all this we are not only hurting ourselves with these pollutants but we are also, not only hurting, but killing off our surroundings little by little that are in some way crucial to our existence here. For example, we are gradually killing our ozone layer by releasing various chemicals such as carbon monoxide which is produced by cars and is highly poisonous and let out into the atmosphere. Lead is another serious pollutant from car exhaust. It is added to gasoline to make engines run more smoothly.

According to Malcolm Penny, in several states the use of leaded gasoline is illegal. Despite its availability in Great Britain only one in a thousand motorists use lead free gasoline in 1997. (10) The ozone layer is a region in the earths stratosphere. It is formed of oxygen that is created by the action if sunlight. This layer is of great importance to us because it protects the earth of getting erect ultraviolet rays which are dangerous to us. Acid precipitation, although a secondary pollutant, is another factor caused by industrial and vehicle emissions when sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxide in the air combine with water.

This poses as a great threat to living organisms, buildings, monuments, and other objects. For example a species can be killed off with strong enough acid precipitation and that is harmful because that will always harm the food chain in some way, meaning it will affect us as well. According to John Beefcake, the damage has been very serious. In the 19005 anglers in Norway caught more than sixty-six pounds of salmon, but since 1970 they have caught none. This incident should set an alarm to everyone, even our foods are being polluted. (12) Acid Precipitation affects the leaves of trees which reduces their ability to make food by photosynthesis.

Photosynthesis is the process of plants making their own food, by the use of energy. As result the trees will sat Scientists believe that the tress are dying from a mixture of tens or even hundreds of chemicals which are released into the air. The air we breathe is a mixture of gases: nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and other gases. The air rounding the earth is a thin layer called the atmosphere. According to Beefcake, since our evolution the atmosphere has remained more less as we know it today. (44) Our daily activities threaten to change this perfect balance.

It isn’t only nitrogen and oxygen that are affected, but others which occur in small quantities. The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has been growing steadily for the past two hundred years with the growth of industry and the increase of car usage. (Penny 66) As result of my research, have found that we need to use renewable resources and finding uses for waste reduces instead of creating pollution by throwing them out. Our environment is a crucial part of our lives and we need to learn how to treat it correctly because without it we would not be living right now.

We need to become more aware of the circumstances that are going to take place if action is not taken. We need to stop making emphasis on what would make us live more comfortably because if we don’t soon we will not have a world to live in. And how comfortable Bibliography:.  Water Pollution people keep on throwing trash and industrial wastes into our clean water. If this continues, the quality of our water will deteriorate, and without it everything dies, including us. Water pollution is destroying our world, but fortunately we can count on special treatments for this kind of problem.

What is water pollution? “It is the contamination of water by foreign matter such as organisms, chemicals, and industrial or other wastes” (Incarnate 96). Water has six major pollutants. These pollutants are the following: sewage and other oxygen-demanding wastes, plant nutrients, exotic organic chemicals, petroleum, radioactive substances, and sediments. Sewage and other oxygen demanding wastes, lead to oxygen depletion “to empty out” ( Webster Dictionary). Plant nutrients; can stimulate the growth of aquatic plants, which can interfere with water uses.

Exotic organic chemicals including pesticides, and industrial products. Petroleum especially from oil spills, which kills most of the animals living in our world. Radioactive substances which come from the wastes of organic and thorium “a heavy, radioactive metallic chemical element” (Webster Dictionary). Sediments, consisting of soil and mineral particles washed away by storms and floodwater from cropland. Some notable effects of water pollution include those involved in human health, some examples would be: “nitrates in drinking water can cause a disease in infants that sometimes results in death” (Incarnate 96).

Cadmium, “a metallic element used in alloys and for electroplating” (Webster Dictionary). If ingested in sufficient amounts, the metal can cause an acute diarrhea disorder and liver and kidney damage. ” The hazardous natural of inorganic substances, such as mercury, arsenic, and lead has long been known or strongly suspected” (Incarnate 96). Lakes are especially vulnerable to pollution. One problem is transportation, “the aging process of a body of water choked by plant life” (Webster Dictionary). It occurs when lake water becomes artificially enriched with nutrients, causing abnormal plant growth.

Runoff of chemical fertilizer from cultivated fields may influence this. The process of transportation can produce problems such as bad tastes and odors, and unsightly green scum of algae, as well as the growth of rooted plants, oxygen depletion, and other chemical changes such as precipitation of calcium carbonate in hard waters. Another problem, “acids main, has left many lakes in the northeastern US and Canada totally devoid of 96). The major sources of water pollution can be classified as municipal, industrial, and agricultural. Industrial wastes provide the widest range of complex pollutants” (Encyclopedia Americana). ‘A particularly complex dimension Of water pollution has emerged in recent years with the growth of synthetic chemical industry” (Encyclopedia Americana). Large power plants also constitute a hazard because they give off heat. The heat released by the plant near a body of water might raise the water temperatures and cause serious damage to aquatic life. Three options are available in controlling industrial pollution.

They are: ” control can take place at the point of generation within the plant; wastewater can be pretreated for discharge to municipal treatment systems; or wastewater can be treated completely at the plant and either reused or discharged directly into receiving waters” (Incarnate 96). Municipal water pollution consists of wastewater from homes and commercial establishments. The main goal of treating municipal wastewater was to reduce its content of suspended solids, oxygen demanding materials, dissolved inorganic compounds and harmful bacteria.

The basic methods of treating municipal wastewater fall into three stages: Primary Treatment “including grit removal, screening, grinding, flocculation, and sedimentation” (Incarnate 96). Secondary treatment “entails oxidation of dissolved organic matter by means of using biological active sludge, than filtered off’ (Incarnate 96), and tertiary treatment, “advanced biological methods Of nitrogen removal and chemical and physical methods such as granular filtration and activated carbon absorption are employed” (Incarnate 96). Agriculture is the source of many organic and inorganic pollutants in surface eaters and ground water.

Control may involve selling basins for liquids, limited biological treatment in aerobic and anaerobic lagoons, and a variety of other methods. In conclusion, water pollution is slowly destroying Gods beautiful creation, earth. These are some treatments for it, but still the water is not a hundred percent pure. We should care more about this problem that we are facing now because in the future it can get worst. Bibliography: 1 . Encyclopedia Incarnate 1996, Water pollution 2. Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 28, Water Pollution, Pl 829 3. Webster Dictionary 1996. Air Pollution

When looking at air pollution, we can see that there are many types, one type is acid rain. Scientists have discovered that air pollution from the burning of fossil fuels mainly in power stations and industry in countries such as Germany, United Kingdom and other economically developed countries is the major cause of acid rain. Acidic deposition or acid rain as it is commonly known occurs when emissions of sulfur dioxide (sis) and oxides of nitrogen (no) react in the atmosphere with water, oxygen and oxidants to form various acidic compounds, sunlight further accelerates this process with the introduction Of heat.

These compounds then fall to the earth in either wet form (such as rain, snow, and fog) or dry form (such as gas and particles). The wind then blows these acidic particles onto buildings, cars, homes and trees. In some instances, these gases and particles can then eat and corrode away the objects which they settle on. There are many effects of acid rain all of which are very negative for the environment, one of these affects is the acidification of lakes and streams and trees at high elevations (for example, red spruce trees above 2,000 Ft). Acid rain primarily affects sensitive bodies of water those which rest atop soil With limited ability to neutralize acidic compounds (called buffering capacity). Many lakes in the National Surface Water survey (NEWS) suffer from chronic acidity ,a condition in which water has a constantly low pH level. In some sensitive lakes in Scandinavia acidification has completely eradicated fish species, such as the brook trout leaving these lakes baron, in fact hundreds of lakes in Scandinavia surveyed by the NEWS have acidity levels indicative of chemical conditions for the survival of sensitive fish species.

Acid rain has been also implicated into causing the degradation of forests in Scandinavia ND Bavaria in Germany, especially in the highly elevated pine forests in the Norway mountainous regions, causing widespread destruction Of trees and along with that the homes and habitats of thousand of animals which with the long term affects of continued acidic soil will never be replaced. There is also a concern about the impact of acid rain on forest soils. There is good reason to believe that long-term changes in the chemistry of some sensitive soils may have already occurred as a result of acid rain.

As the acid rain moves through the soil it can strip the soil of any vital nutrients wrought chemical reactions, therefore posing a potential threat to the future forest productivity. There are also economic implications to acid rain, acidic particles are known to contribute to the corrosion of metals and deterioration of stone buildings and paint on cars. The corrosion seriously depreciates the value of buildings and goods which are a value to society e. G. Old buildings which have to be maintained more due to the increase and effects of acid rain, like statues features becoming less deformed and rounded.

Some manufacturers of motor vehicles have had top paint their cars with acid assistant paint which can protect the car against the corrosive affects of acid rain, at an average cost of 5 per car produced in the Scandinavian countries which is a total of 61 million per year on top of all new cars sold in the Scandinavian countries. However certain regulations have been introduced to prevent future increases in damages to materials, the acid rain program will try to reduce emissions of sis ,the benefits of this program are measured, by the costs now of repair or damage since the program was introduced.

There are more social effects Of acid rain one is that the health Of the general population of a country seems to be worsening due to the air born acidic particles, sis has now been regulated by the clean air act in 1990,when sulfur dioxide interacts in the atmosphere to form sulfur aerosols, which may be transported long distances through the air, most of these aerosols then being inhaled and lung conditions e. G. Asthma and bronchial conditions are a result of the sis emissions. In 2010 when the benefits of the clean air act have been realized then there will be decreased mortality, hospital admissions and emergency room visits.

The clean air act is an international agreement which is set by the environment council which meet and discuss global environmental issues e. G. Air pollution, then come up with strategies to combat these problems. On a national scale the spraying of aerosols which contain cuff’s which can have a detrimental effect on the ozone layer leading to the accelerated effects of global warming where by the ice caps may melt, this in turn raises the whole sea level of the globe by a couple of feet then islands such as the Maldives and the low countries like the Netherlands and Belgium become flooded.

This in turn has many side effects like decreases farm land so then the country has o spend more money on imports and economically this is influential to this country. To combat this problem on a national scale individuals and the general public have bought CUFF free aerosols and fridges, which have greatly decreased the threat of global warming. Also governments have given grants to businesses, which produce this more expensive CUFF free aerosol, which has accelerated the decommissioning of CIFS in aerosols.

Another air pollutant is the production of smoke and smog from the industrial countries mainly containing ash and other lung disorder causing chemicals and materials so governments especially the united mining have had to fit filters such as limestone filters on chimneys to restrict the amount of sulfur dioxide emissions which eventually leads to acid rain, they have been made to do this with the introduction of regulation brought forward by the European union (EX.) in Brussels which have given the united kingdom targets of reducing its sulfur dioxide emissions by `.

As the united kingdom is seen to be the main causer of the acid rain in scScandinaviaowever this can never be proved and unless this can be proved fines and court cases cacan’te brought against the British government, the nlonlyuggestion of evidence that suggest that the united kingdom causes the destruction of forests and other buildings in the Scandinavian countries is how the prevailing winds blow from east to west in the jet steams both in winter and summer in winter the rorosyaves and jet streams tighten and pick up susulfurioxide emissions from Germany and other economically developed countries and drop the acid rain as relief rainfall on Scandinavia as the high pressure looms over Scandinavia at that time Of the year. Light Pollution, All About Its Effects! Some people might think its the opposite of heavy pollution! But NO, Light Pollution is man made light that falls outside the area of intended lighting. Some examples are a street light that shines in your yard or your bedroom window and a billboard light that over shines the sign. Light pollution is the broad, glglowgEngome of light we see over metropolitan areas, sports arenas, parking lots, or industrial complexes.

It can also be a neighbor’s backyard light shining into your bedroom window throughout the night. Basically, light pollution is any unwanted, annoying, or unproductive light spewing into the night environment. Light energy is wasted on street light, security light, billboard, or building igsightsYou notice that much of the light is not hitting the area that needs the lighting. Look down a long road in or near the city. Every light source you can see is wasting energy. anAndou can see the light source, that fixture is not directing that light where it is needed, therefore that light is being wasted. Light pollution is becoming an Increasing problem now because of population growth.

We think that this is not a problem but If you thought about it about cramming thousands of these wasteful lighting practices in urban and suburban areas, and it equals an enormous waste of energy, unnecessary nvenvironmentalmpact, it may improve safety and security, and just looks bad and ugly. It takes electricity to produce light. Up to 50% of the light produced by street lights do not fall on the intended area and are wasted. The wasted light is spread over a wide area and even above the horizon. Any light source or sources of light which are grouped that let out bright light, which distresses other humans is the cause Of light pollution. We use fossil fuels and nuclear reactors to produce most of our electricity. unUnfortunatelyhese methods of producing energy are not friendly to our environment. Burning coal and oil emits carbon dioxide and sulfur compounds into our air.

Carbon dioxide is a green house gas that adds to the global warming problem. Sulfur compounds dissolve in water that is in the clouds and produce acid rain. Nuclear reactors produce radioactive waste which is difficult and expensive to dispose of safely. Direct light entering your eyes from these inefficient lighting fixtures produces glare. Glare makes it more difficult to see, especially when driving in poor weather. Glare also compromises security by making it difficult to clearly see the secure area. The electricity used to produce this wasted light is not free. We pay for in our taxes pay for the electricity Of our city street lights. Businesses pass the cost of lighting to the price of their goods and services.

It may not seem like a large amount, but add it up from the thousands of inefficient outdoor light fixtures, and it amounts to a great deal of money Light Pollution is also an serious problem for most astronomers today, they just cannot see the stars any more, which is why they are on hills. To be fully away from the effects of light pollution, you must be approximately 100 miles or more away from any city.. n Nany parts of the country you cannot get this far away without going into the ocean! And if all this works this also cuts down the effect on the global worming greenhouse effect! This will cut down on wasting millions of kilowatt hours of electricity and energy which wastes money, and ruins the night sky. You can do your part by shielding your own outdoor lights and reducing the wattage of the bulbs. You will find that it will be easier to see and it will look more pleasant.

You can speak to your representatives and express your concern over wasted energy and ask them to implement efficient outdoor lighting. You can address your local government to develop and adopt outdoor lighting ordinances so that wasteful lighting designs are not used. You can not tolerate street lights that waste energy by shining on your property. You can spread the word to your friend and neighbors so that they are aware of the wastefulness of inefficient and unnecessary outdoor lighting. One group called OLALPACAho are against light pollution has mission is to minimize the negative environmental impact and energy waste due to inefficient outdoor lighting in Ohio.

Our principal tool for achieving this is education. By building awareness of light pollution, and about the value and effectiveness of well-designed lighting, we can make a difference. We can save energy, preserve dark skies, eliminate driving hazards, improve the appearance of our neighborhoods, and have save money at the same time. Free essay sample, essay topic, how to write essay on Light Pollution, All About Its Effects! Acid Rain Pollution Acid rain pollution comes in various forms. Whether its toxic waste, CFCIFSor sewage, they are all hazardous to the earth. These can deplete the earth and its inhabitants of resources, causing a harmful change. A product of pollution is acid rain.

We shall see that acidification is harmful to all forms of life. Acid rain is any form of precipitation that is polluted by susulfurioxide (S0SIS and nitrogen oxides (NOKNOX This acid precipitation can be in the form of rain, snow, sleet, fog, or cloud vapors. The acidity of substances dissolved in water are measured by their pH levels. Normal precipitation pH levels fall between 5. 0-5. 62 When levels fall below these numbers, then the precipitation is said to be acidic. There are two ways in which acid deposition can form. The first way occurs when nitrogen oxides and susulfurioxide land on the Earths surface, and interact ittitrost or dew.

The second way takes place due to the oxidation of nitrogen oxides or susulfurioxide gases that are released into the air. 3 Since it may take up to several days for the gases to be altered into their acid counter-parts, the pollutants can travel miles away from their original source. Emissions of (S0SISare responsible for the majority of the acid deposition, which falls to Earth. When we burn coal, we are releasing (S0SIS into the air, since coal is slight made up of susulfurVolcanic eruptions can add a great deal of susulfurnto the atmosphere. Everyday organic decay adds susulfurnto the air as well. S0SIScan hit the Earths surface in dry forms or wet forms, by undergoing the following reactions: (S0SIS H2H2O2HOSES(S0SIS 02 *** S0SIS H2HOSES.

Human activity is the major cause for nitrogen oxides presence in our atmosphere, such as forest fires and the combustion of oil, coal, and gas. The other causes are due to nature. Lightning, volcanic action, and bacteria in soil are just to name a few. The following chemical reactions show how acids of nitrogen form: (N0NON 02 *** N0NON(2NNONE H2H2O** HNHON. HNHON.(N0NON OH *** HNHON.. Acid rain can affect plant life directly when the surface of eaves and needles come into contact with acid vapor or fog. This causes a reduction in the trees ability to withstand the cold. A direct result would be the tree’s Incapability of reproduction. It can also harm plant life indirectly, by the acidification of soils.

Acid rain can cause soil to loose nutrients such as calcium, potassium, and magnesium. In very acidic conditions, aluminum becomes soluble, and is released from the soil. At high enough concentrations, aluminum can cause damage to roots. Acid rain causes a nutrient imbalance, in soil. Although it is true that nitrogen promotes forest growth, plant life also needs ththereutrients. Precipitation polluted by nitrogen can contain heavy metals, such as mercury, cadmium, and lead. This process is known as nitrogen saturation. l Lhese too, can cause damage to tree roots. Besides trees, plants are also affected by acid rain. Reductions in pH levels can cause seed germination to be inhibited.

Plant structures become weak, due to the loss of nutrients to the plants tissues-4 Flowering of certain plants may not OCCUr due to lack of essential minerals. Marine life is also greatly affect by acid rain. Acid water can leach high levels of aluminum from the bedrock. Rocks that contain great amounts f calcium or magnesium can act as a neneutralizeThose rocks and soils that lack some sort of buffers can cause grave damage to marine fish and plants. There are two ways in which aluminum can harm aquatic environments. It can cause a fish to suffocate, because aluminum precipitates in gills, thus interfering in the transport of oxygen. Secondly, fish produce mucus to combat the aluminum, in their gills. The mucus then builds up a clogs the fifishills. In middle latitudes many bodies of water experience what is called acid shock. 4 Over the winter acid deposits can build up on snow. As the snow melts, the acids are released. Most fish can survive shock, but their eggs cannot adapt to acidification. When there is a change in the chemistry of water, the ecology of the water begins to change. The number and variety of species are altered. At a pH level of 6. 0 certain types of zooplankton and green algae begin to disappear. The loss of green plants allows more UVIVight to penetrate to further depths, so certain types of snails and phphotolankton disappear. Frogs, toads, and salamanders are also affected by acid rain-5 The low pH stunts their growth.

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