The American Progressive Period

Progressive Period

  • 1880-1921
  • women gained more rights
  • European immigrants poured into the nations cities
  • Industrial revolution continued to change the nature of both work & society

Progressives

  • Members of the Progressive Period who wanted to make America a better & safer place to live
  • Education had a key role to play

1880-1920

  • 1/2 of rural population gave up farming & moved to cities; 15+ million immigrants settled primarily in cities
  • many new city dwellers lacked education, practical skills, & financial resources
  • very few social, educational, or government services were available to help

1920

  • all states had laws requiring children to go to elementary school
  • many of those policies are still in use today

Segregated Education

  • African American children attended seperate school that had less funding
  • materials were scarce & second-rate
  • African American teachers could only teach in African American school & were paid significantly less 

Role of Teachers

  • considered professionals
  • teacher prep classes in colleges replaces normal schools
  • more emphesis on educational theories 

Teachers’ Labor Unions

  • teachers became unhappy with the standardization
  • wanted freedom in the classroom
  • first labor union created to try ; improve pay, status, ; working conditions

Working Women

  • during Progressive Period, women entered workforce in greater numbers
  • many became teachers, some even became principals
  • by the end of the Progressive Period, women were able to vote, ; some say it’s because of their power in the classroom

School Curiculum

  • focused on students as individuals
  • students encouraged to think critically & independently 

John Dewey

  • educational philosopher, psychologist, & writer
  • a leading voice for progressive education
  • believed classrooms were inflexible & didn’t adapt to the needs, interests, ; abilities of individual students

Maria Montessori

  • Italian physician, educator, ; innovator
  • created Montessori Method stating kids need sensory experiences before they learn to read ; write.

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