TExES ESL SUPPLEMENTAL 154

CHOMSKY
His theory involves the Language Acquisition Device (LAD)
PIAGET
His theory involves Cognitive Constructivism
VYGOTSKY
His theory involves Social Constructivism and Language
CHOMSKY
  • described as a Nativist
  • asserts that humans are born with a special biological brain mechanism (LAD)

NATIVISM / NATIVIST
  • Language Acquisition Device Theory
  • language is innately determined from within rather than by external factors
  • ability to distinguish language from other sounds
  • nature is more important than nurture 

PIAGET
  • believed that language is a reflection of thought and does not contribute to the development of thinking
  • believed that cognitive development precedes language development

 

VYGOTSKY
  • his central focus is the relatonship between the development of thought and language
  • interested in the ways different languages impact a person’s thinking
  • viewed language first as social communication

COLLIER
he believed that children are active learners who construct their worlds
BEHAVIORIST THEORY
  • believed that language is determined by stimuli from the environment
  • learning includes a set of stimulus-response-reward (SRR)
  • learner learns to imitateresponses provided by the environment

INTERACTIONIST THEORISTS
  • combines nativist and behaviorist theory
  • supports the belief that language is a product of both genetic and environmental factors

NATIVIST THEORY
believed that children are born with an innate capacity to acqure language
CONSTRUCTIVIST THEORY
  • learning takes place based on the process of change;brought about as the child constructs knowledge
  • child learns to relate what is said to particular objects or events in the environment

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SOCIAL INTERACTIONIST THEORY

the development of language comes from the early interactions between infants and caregivers

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STEPHEN KRASHEN
He developed five hypotheses for second language acquisition
  1. acquisition-learning
  2. monitor
  3. natural order
  4. input
  5. affective filter

Name the 5 hypotheses for Second Language Acquisition
ACQUISITION-LEARNING HYPOTHESIS

this hypothesis suggests that there are two independent ways of how individuals learn language, acquired and learned

;

-acquired, occurs naturally

-learned, what occurs at school in an academic setting; requires formal instruction (coursework, study, memorizaton)

NATURAL ORDER HYPOTHESIS

this hypothesis claims that the learning of grammatical structures is predictable and follows a “natural order” by way of:

  1. single words
  2. string of words based on meaning
  3. identifying elements that begin and end sentences
  4. rearranging elements in sentences to produce questions

;

MONITOR HYPOTHESIS
  • grammatical structures are acquired in natural order
  • conscious knowledge comes later as editor of linguistic output
  • to work, speaker must be concerend with correctness, know rules, have sufficient time to apply rules

COMPREHENSIBLE INPUT HYPOTHESIS
  • this hypothesis uses simple sentences
  • ESLs acqurie language by comprehending what is being communicated
  • must be provided by the teacher

AFFECTIVE FILTER HYPOTHESIS
  • this hypothesis has elements that affect acquistion of language: anxiety, self image, interest and motivation
  • provides low-level stress, interesting environment, avoid correcting and embarrassing

2ND LANGUAGE HYPOTHESIS
states that there are 2 separate process for the development of proficiency in L2: acquisition and language
COGNITIVE APPROACH
  1. focuses on devloping all 4 skills (language, listening, reading, writing)
  2. focuses on communicative competence
  3. learning overemphasized
  4. better than grammar-translation, but newer methods provide better results

NATURAL APPROACH
  1. teacher speaks only L2
  2. students may use L1 or L2, speech errors not corrected; grammar homework corrected
  3. emphasis use of language to talk about ideas, perform tasks, solve problems
  4. great but, limited interest, relevance

PREPRODUCTION

the stage in which:

  • there is minimal comprehension
  • no verbal production
  • learner knows 500 receptive words
  • also known as receptive or silent period
  • match, measure, manipulate objects
  • draw pictures using patterns

EARLY PRODUCTION
  • learner knows about 1,000 receptive words
  • speaks in one or two word phrases
  • use simple responses (yes/no
  • identifies people, places, things
  • repeats memorable language
  • lists, categorizes, sorts
  • listens and recalls

SPEECH EMERGENCE
  • also known as lexical chunks
  • increased comprehension
  • produces simple sentences with some errors
  • explains concepts with greater detail and complexity
  • compare and contast
  • defines new vocabulary
  • greater fact recall

INTERMEDIATE LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY
  • learner makes complex statements
  • states opinions, asks for clarification, share thoughts
  • have excellent comprehension
  • makes few grammar errors
  • higher order thinking skills

INTERMEDIATE LEVEL

students are asked to:

analyze, create, defend, debate, evaluate, justify, support, explain at this level

INTERMEDIATE LEVEL

activities from this level includes:

  • easy readig and writing
  • evaluating
  • predicting outcomes
  • supporting
  • analyzing charts and graphs

NAME THE STAGES OF LANGUAGE ACQUISITION IN ORDER
  1. pre-production
  2. early production
  3. speech emergence
  4. intermediate fluency
  5. proficiency

ADVANCED LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY
students have very good comprehension, near native speech, no errors
COMPREHENSIBLE;INPUT

key to second language learning

defined by Krashen as i + 1, input beyond the learner’s present ability

WHAT DOES “PRAC” STAND FOR?
  • practicing
  • receiving and sending messages
  • analyzing and reasoning
  • creating structure for input and output

PRACTICING

strategies that help promote the learner’s grasp of the language by:

  • constant repetition
  • make attempts to imitate a native speaker’s accent
  • concentrate on sounds
  • practice in a realist setting

is known as what strategy?

RECEIVING AND SENDING MESSAGES

strategies that help the learner quickly locate salient points and then interpret the meaning by:

  • skimming through information to determine “need to know” vs. “nice to know” and
  • use available resources (print and non-print) to interpret messages

are strategies for?

ANALYZING AND REASONING
  • use general rules to understand the meaning
  • work into specifics
  • break down unfamiliar expressions into parts

 are strategies for?

CREATING STRUCTURE FOR INPUT AND OUTPUT
  • choose a format for taking meaningful notes
  • practice summarizing long passages
  • use highlighters to emphasize main ideas or important specific detail

are strategies for?

COGNITVE
  • practicing
  • receiving and sending messages
  • analzing and reasoning
  • creating structure for input and output

 

are all what type of strategies?

METACOGNITIVE
  • centering learning
  • arranging and planning learning
  • evaluate learning

are all what type of strategies?

CENTERING LEARNING
  • review a key concept or principle and link it to already existing knowledge
  • make a firm decision to pay attention to the genral concept
  • ignore input that is distracting
  • learn skills in the proper order

 

are all what type of metacognitive strategies?

ARRANGING AND PLANNING LEARNING

strategies that help the learner maximize the learning experience by:

  • taking the time to understand how a language is learned
  • create optimal learning conditions (regulate noise, lighting, and temperature)
  • obtain the appropriate books
  • set reasonable long-term and short-term goals

are all what type of metacognitive strategies?

EVALUATE LEARNING

strategies that help learners assess their learning achievements by:

  • keeping track of errors that prevent furthur progress and
  • keeping track of progress (reading faster now than the student could the previous month

are all what type of metacognitive strategies?

SOCIOAFFECTIVE
lowering anxiety, encouragement, and taking emotional temperature are three strategies for?
WHAT DOES “LET” STAND FOR?
  • lowering anxiety
  • encouragement
  • taking emotional temperature

LOWERING ANXIETY

strategies that maintain emotional equilibrium with physical activities such as:

  • using meditation
  • deep breathing to relax
  • listenting to calming music
  • reading a funny book or
  • watching a comedy

are all strategies for?

ENCOURAGEMENT
TAKING EMOTIONAL TEMPERATURE

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