TEXES EC-6 Generalist

Imitation
What strategy do children use at the one-word stage of language acquisition?
Test out language rules, such as “I goed out yesterday”.
After age two, what do children do when imitation no longer meets their communication needs?
Very little impact. They are not concerned with grammar, but rather in using language to have their needs met.
What effect does direct error correction have on language development of early childhood children?
modeling (rather than correction)
What is the best way to support language development in young children?
phonology
morphology
syntax
lexicon
semantics
pragmatics
What are the basic components of any given language?
Phonology
What is the study of the sound system of a language?
The study of the sound system of a language
What is phonology?
phonemes
What are the basic units of sound called?
The basic units of sound.
What are phonemes?
Individual letters that represent phonemes (or sounds)
What are graphemes?
7 graphemes(letters)
3 phonemes /th, r, u/
How many graphemes are in the word “through”? How many phonemes?
morphology
What is the study of the structure of words and word formations?
the study of the structure of words and word formations
What is word morphology?
morphemes
what are the smallest representations of meaning?
the smallest representations of meaning
what are morphemes?
two
(car = root word, s = plural)
how many morphemes are in the word “cars”?
syntax
What term refers to the way in which words are organized and arranged in a language?
the way in which words are organized and arranged in a language.
What is syntax?
lexicon
what term refers to the vocabulary of a language?
the vocabulary of a language
What is a lexicon?
the way that meaning is conveyed in a language through the use of vocabulary
(Connotation and Denotation)
What are semantics?
semantics
What is the term for how meaning is conveyed in a language using vocabulary?
implied meaning of words and ideas
-must have knowledge of culture to understand expressions implied meaning
(“irons in the fire” meaning to be planning)
What is connotation?
the literal meaning of words and ideas
(“irons in the fire” meaning someone actually has irons in a fire)
what is denotation?
describes how context can affect the interpretation of communication
-hidden rules of communications understood by native speakers (“commonsense”)
What are pragmatics?
Babbling, reflexive crying
-pre-language stage
-play with sounds
How do children ages 0-6 months communicate?
imitation of inflections and facial expressions
-one-word stage
-recognize their name and follow simple instructions
-begin pointing and understanding word concepts
How do children ages 11-19 months communicate?
begin producing simple types of phrases that are a combination of two types of words- Pivot + Open

-two word stage

Pivot- words that can be used for multiple functions (no, up, all, see, more, gone)

Open- words generally used to refer to one concept (home, milk, doggy, shoe)

“all gone”

How do children ages 13-24 months communicate?
child goes beyond two-word stage and uses mostly content words with high semantic value that can be used in multiple situations

-telegraphic stage

-function word use is still very limited (prepositions, articles)

“milk all gone”
“that not nice”

How do children ages 18-27 months communicate?
use about 200 to 300 words and can generally produce short sentences

-use prepositions and pronouns with some level of inconsistency

How do children at age 2 communicate?
use about 900 to 1000 words

begin creating 3 to 4 word sentences

-able to follow 2 step commands
-engage in short dialogues

How do children at age 3 communicate?
use about 1500 words

-more complex sentence structure, but speech still contains pronunciation problems and over-generalizations

-understand more that what they are able to convey with language

How do children at age 4 communicate?
concepts and vocabulary related to the themes in various content areas
The use of thematic planning is ideal for ELLs because students are exposed to..
identify critical features of a given concept
The main purpose of using semantic mapping in social studies is to…
visual representation of interconnected characteristics or features of a given concept

can be represented with words or symbols

for example: concept of “landscape” linked to pictures of lakes, trees, grass, mountains, etc

What is semantic mapping?
Incas
Pizzaro conquered the…
Aztecs
Cortes conquered the
St. Augustine, established by spaniards near 1565 near Jacksonville, Florida
What was the first permanent European colony?
365
As a sphere, how many degrees does the earth have?
15%

earth is 365%, divided into 24 zones (because of the turn on it access equals the length of a day).
365 divided by 24 = 15

What is the degree of seperation between earths timezones?
The Himalayas
What mountain range contains 9 of the top 10 mountain peaks in the world?
2 per state = 100 total
How many senators represent each of the 50 states?
no, just states
Are territories represented in the senate?
The House of “Representatives”

in senate, every state gets 2 votes
Representatives “represent” the proportion of people in the US.

Every time there is a census, is it the Senate or the House that changes?
noun (mary)
transitive verb (gave)
indirect object (me)
direct object (dollar)
What is the syntactic structure that represents the following sentance?

“Mary gave me a dollar.”

means it can take objects
What is a transitive verb?
ask two questions:

Mary gave what? a dollar (direct object)

Mary gave it to whom? me (indirect object)

How can you tell if a sentence contains a direct or indirect object?

ex: Mary gave me a dollar.

the best practices from the skill-based and the meaning-based approaches
The key feature of a balanced reading program is that it contains…?
a balanced reading program
Phonics instruction, skill-based approach, decoding skills, and meaning-based approach are all combined in what program?
it is used to compensate for the phoneme-grapheme inconsistency of English
What is the rationale for the popularity of onset and rime in teaching spellings skills?
structural analysis
Prefixes and suffixes are generally introduced using what type of analysis?
the first set of graphemes occurs for frequently in reading
What is the main reason for introducing the letter-sound correspondence of the m, b, t, p, and s prior to letters like x or q?
encouraging students to make predictions based on the title and the pictures
During the pre-reading stage of the shared book experience, teachers can increase interest in the story by…
pre- derivational
destin(y) – root word
ed – inflectional ending
The word “predestined” is composed of what kinds of morphemes?
reading comprehension
SSR (sustained silent reading) is designed to promote…
oral readings
Reading fluency is best promoted through…
technique used with struggling readers designed to promote reading comprehension in the content areas.

It engages the teacher and student in a dialogue designed to guide children reading comprehension (such as summarizing, generating questions, clarifying, prediction)

What is reciprocal teaching?
congruent
If two polygons have exactly the same size and shape they are…
similar
If two polygons have the same shape but different sizes they are…
A=(bxh)/2

area = (base x height) divided by 2

What is the formula for the area of a triangle?
A = l x w

area = length x width

What is the formula for the area of a rectangle?
a = l x h

area = length x height
(height may not be the length of one of its sides)

What is the formula for the area of a parallelogram?
A = pi x r^2

Area = pi (3.14) x radius squared

What is the formula for the area of a circle?
A = l x w x h

area = length x width x height

What is the formula for the volume of a rectangular solid (such as a box)?
area of base x height
What is the formula for the volume of a prism or a cylinder?
180 degrees
what is the sum of all three angles in every triangle?
a^2 + b^2 = c^2

In any right triangle with shorter sides (a and b) and hypotenuse (c), the sum of the sides will be equal to the square of the hypotenuse.

What is the Pythagorean theorem?
identify the reading level of children
Informal reading inventories are designed to…
the performance of children in oral reading
miscue analysis was developed to assess…
a*c

b*d

then simplify if possible

How would you multiply the fraction

a c
– x –
b d

124

shift the decimal two points on all numbers

divide 6.2 by 0.05
the circle fits inside of the square touching in as many places as possible
What does it mean if a circle is inscribed in a square?
The same concepts and vocabulary are presented in multiple lessons. This repetition can reinforce vocabulary and concepts, and can improve comprehension of the content.
What is thematic instruction?
Mayans around 700 BCE
The concept of zero evolved in India but was also developed, disconnetedly, by the….
Gothic style, 1150-1500 AD
Flying buttresses, pointed arches, and stained glass windows are characteristics of which historic style of architecture?
1050-1150 AD, wall buttresses and rounded arches, with only few having pointed arches
What characterizes architecture of the Romanesque period?
get child to a shaded area and give them water to drink

do not pour ice water on child, it can do more harm than good

heat exhaustion is not as serious as heat stroke

If a child is suffering from heat exhaustion, what should you do first?
involve movement of the body’s large muscles as visual information is processed

a ball is always used to perfect these skills

What are gross motor-visual skills?
20 minutes
For an aerobic workout to be effective, exercise should be performed at an individuals targeted heart rate for a minimum of…
amount of mass that is contained per unit of volume of a given substance.
What is density?
a combination of the density and weight (pull of gravity) of an object
What determines if an object will sink or float?
a measure of the amount of matter something contains
What is mass?
recycle and redistribute the water in an ecosystem
What is the role of evaporation and condensation in the water cycle?
Mercury and Venus
Which planets have a year shorter than Earth’s?
cumulus
What types of clouds are you likely to see on a sunny summer day?
cumulonimbus
What types of clouds are you likely to see on a cloudy and rainy day?
nimbostratus
What types of clouds are you likely to see on a snowy day?
one syllable and two phonemes

two consonant diagraphs (th and ght)
one vowel diagraph (ou)

how many syllables and phonemes are in the word “thought”
involves whole sentences and determine meaning based on position of words within sentences
What is syntactic analysis?
PEMDAS

Parentheses Exponent Multiply Divide Add Subtract

(please excuse my dear aunt sally)

What is the order of operations in long mathematical operations?
16 oz
How many ounces (oz) are in a pound (lb)?
2000 lbs
How many pounds (lb) are in a ton?
the meridians of longitude
The lines that create our time zones are also referred to as…
latitude

(think ladder)

Does latitude or longitude go horizontally along the earth (parallel to the equator)?
longitude

(its a LONG distance between the poles)

Does latitude or longitude go vertically along the earth (from pole to pole)?
2nd grade

to promote reading fluency
(the activity helps solidify the connection between words and speech)

What grade are students usually guided to discontinue the practice of pointing to words as they read, and why?
using pictures and scribbles
using initial sounds in their writing
dictating of an idea or a complete story
Characteristics of emergent writers include…
sensory experiences

such as texture of paper, color and shapes of marks they are making

Two year olds are primarily concerned with what in their earliest art activities?
No, unless they are in extreme circumstances and in their IEP

They need the Least Restrictive Environment, so an ARD committee will determine what accommodations to make in all classes, including PE

Under IDEA, can you exclude students with special needs from physical education and activities?
The Virginia House of Burgesses
What was the first Legislature established under the English colonies?
A flat representation of the earth

does not show sizes and shapes as accurately as a globe (due to its flatness)

What is a Mercator projection map?
engage, explore, explain, elaborate, evaluate
What are the steps in the 5-E model of scientific inquiry?
To guide students to begin experimenting and gathering data about a scientific concept.
What is the main purpose of the “explore” component of the 5-E scientific inquiry process?
To increase interest and curiosity in students about the scientific principle studied
What is the main purpose of the “engage ” component of the 5-E scientific inquiry process?
kindergarten

this should include expressing ideas about personal artworks, and the artworks of peers and professionals.

In what grade should students begin experiencing critically evaluating their own art and the art of others?
classroom musical approach using both unpitched rhythm instruments (such as wood blocks)and melodic or barred instruments (such as xylophones)
What is the Orff approach?
Orff approach
Which classroom musical approach is usually associated with wooden blocks, triangles, and xylophones?
classroom musical approach to teach music literacy using singing
What is the Kodaly Method?
fun games that requires physical activity
The most appropriate exercise for K and 1st grade students are
Onsets represent the first phoneme of a syllable or a monosyllabic word, such as “s” in sank and “b” in bank

“ank” is the rime

What is an “onset”?
Rimes follow the onset in a word, and are linked to the concept of word families.

“ank” can be used to create multiple words, such as blank, sank, bank, flank.

What is a “rime”?
two words that differ in only one phoneme

ex: very and berry

What is a “minimal pair” in reading?
Semantic, Structural, graphophonemic, and visual cuing systems.

They are used to self-monitor what they are reading as well as to begin correcting their errors without much support.

What are some cuing systems used by newly fluent readers to aid in comprehension of texts?
Associative property of addition

basic property of addition is that it can be carried out in any order

What is the mathematical property involved in the following problem:

(6+5)+2 = 6+(2+5)

The SS strands have been used as a foundation for the development of the state curriculum for all levels of education.
What is the relationship between the 8 social studies stands and the TEKS?
Fourth Grade
In what grade does the state curriculum officially introduce children to Texas history?
School and community
What is the social studies focus of 1st Grade?
the individual and how each affects the community
What is the social studies focus of 3rd grade?
Basal metabolic rate

It is constantly burning calories and converting energy. As a result, more calories are expended during rest than exercise.

What is basal metabolism?
Words that have the same spelling and pronunciation, but have different meanings.

For example: a club (night club) and a club (wooden stick)

What are homonyms?
Words pronounced the same way, but have different meanings and spellings.

to and two

What are homophones?
red, hot, dry skin (due to lack of hydration) and unconsciousness (in extreme situations)
How do you best recognize Heat Stroke?
Perception
creative expression
historical/cultural heritage
critical evaluation
The state curriculum for fine and visual arts is organized around what four strands?
unicellular organisms with very rudimentary cellular organization
What characterizes the scientific kingdom of Monera?
Animal kingdom, which exclusively contains invertebrates (97% of all species are invertebrates)
Coral invertebrates reproduce sexually or asexually, filter water for nutrients, and may or may not build reefs. What kingdom are they in?
teacher is dictating the ideas and thoughts of the students. As the students share ideas, the teacher writes them down, thus connecting speech to print. The teacher is also modeling how oral language is related to writing.
What is the “Language Experience Approach” (LEA)?
also known as cognitive vocabulary

vocabulary that is needed to understand the concepts of teaching and learning.

What is “academic vocabulary”?
The Apache and Comanche, both nomadic tribes

They domesticated the horse, which made them better hunters and warriors. They were able to fight Europeans for many years as a result.

Why are Indian tribes from the Central and Great Plains of Texas better known than ones from the Coastal Plains?
Cotton, cattle, petroleum, and computers and electronics
Identify the order of the major products that have supported the Texas economy through its history.
A whole number that is either positive or negative
What is an integer?

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