What are the 5 most proficiencies a teacher should keep in mind?
-student-centered instruction
-child’s developmental level
-responds to diverse groups of learners
-professional and interpersonal communication skills
-teacher as reflective professional
What level is appropriate for restricted essay items?
Anything lower than application
-because they do not have free range on the topic, they are restricted
What do students do at the Comprehension level of bloom’s taxonomy?
translates, comprehends or interprets information based on prior learning
-explain, summarize, interpret, rewrite, convert, give example
What are some “good practices” teachers should follow (what to keep in mind when answering questions on the exam)?
-challenging and active instruction
-effective communication
-learner-centered instructional strategies/activities
-effective Monitoring and assessment
What are some responses that represent “poor practices”?
-harsh, negative feedback
-teaching topics in isolation
-drill and practice
-testing just for grades
-teaching by telling
-coercion, sarcasm, ridicule
-low-level objectives
-inconsistency, unfairness, unequal treatment
-yes or no questions
-leave out reluctant or problem students
-worksheets, timelines (facts and dates)
-all students seen as the same (differences ignored)
-memorization emphasized
What are some good practices relating to “Challenging and Active Instruction”?
-active, student-centered learning
-inquiry learning
-students justify their thinking
-teachers in various roles
-creative thinking (synthesis)
-higher order and critical thinking skills (apply, analyze, synthesize, problem solve, evaluate)
-hands-on, concrete activities
-open ended questions and problem solving projects
-student collection and organization of data
What are some good practices relating to “Effective Communication”?
-teachers are effective listeners
-teachers have effective verbal/nonverbal communication
-technology as instructional tool
-use of questioning to challenge students
What are some good practices relating to “Learner-centered instructional strategies/activities”?
-variety of instruction
-developmentally appropriate
-related to interests and abilities of students
-teachers responsive to student input
-safe, positive, supportive classroom
-multicultural and equal, cross-cultural
-connecting to other subject matter and real world
-based on prior knowledge
-fits different learning styles
What are some good practices relating to “Collaboration”?
-environments encourage social interaction
-active engagement in learning
-self motivation
-collaborative learning
-supportive interaction in classroom
What are some good practices relating to “Professionalism”?
-teachers follow standards (ethical, legal, and professional)
-works with parents and community
-teacher self-reflection
-knowledgeable of recent developments and issues
-collaborate with colleges and other professionals
-lifelong learners (seek professional development)
What are some good practices relating to “Effective Classroom Management”?
-safe and orderly environment
-teachers are courteous and respectful
-maximized academic learning time
-encourage self-discipline and self-management
What are some good practices relating to “Effective Monitoring and Assessment”?
-assessment aligned with instruction
-provides opportunities for relearning and reassessment
-student self-assessment
-responsive to student’s varied needs
-on-going process
-provide specific, constructive, timely feedback
“Approach, principle, strategy” in question stem usually indicates the answer is…
a general pedagogical practice
-not specific to scenario (broader)
-other choices may be reasonable, but are specific to scenario
What must you consider when answering a question about a scenario?
age, background, subject, grade level of students
-only the information provided
-IDEAL WORLD not reality
What are some conditions in the “Ideal World”?
-money/resources not a problem
-teacher has infinite amount of time
-teacher always with student
-plenty of personnel
-students are motivated
-everyone collaborates
What is the most important consideration for students and teachers with regard to student’s use of the internet as a research tool?
Much of the information on the Internet has not been reviewed and verified by experts in relevant fields

-name of website, search engine results, and up to date information are not the MOST important things

What are some views that Texas has about good education practices (paradigms)?
-consider developmental stages
-model appropriate responses and behaviors (can include peer modeling)
-cooperative learning in groups (group learning)
-student-centered instruction/learning
-multicultural instruction (not just surface inclusion)
-multiple resources (people and tech)
-high expectations for all students
-student choice for learning/motivation/rules
-real life experiences/application
-authentic assessment with rubric
-problem solving
-teacher stays with (beside) the student
-what is best for student, not for teacher
-teacher and student are constantly actively engaged (monitoring and participating)
What are some practices that do NOT fit the Texas view (bad paradigms)?
-easy/lazy for teacher
-sitting at desk/computer
-leaving the job to someone else
-upset parents, other teachers, school admin
-don’t “confront” parents
-don’t try to “fix” parents or offer advice(they are equal partners with teacher)
-lowering standards
-worksheets, lists
-having students do less than other students
-encouraging students to avoid difficult tasks
-grades as motivators
-extrinsic rewards
-same strategy for all students
-competition in classroom
-excluding students with disability
-non-specific feedback
-ONLY low level objectives
-yes/no questions only
-only memorization
-ability groups (tracking)
Who was the first known European to explore and map the Texas Coastline?
Alonso Alvarez de Pineda (Spanish Explorer)
Which early explorers came to Texas, in order?
Pineda, Cabeza de Vaca, Coronado, LaSalle, de Leon
What year did Stephen F. Austin get a grant from the Mexican government to begin colonizing Texas?
What caused tension between Texans and Mexico in 1830?
Mexico forbid further settlers from the United States from colonizing Texas
What battle had the first casualties in Texas relations with Mexico?
Battle of Velasco (Mexicans lost)
Which fight in the Texas Revolution occurred after the Conventions of 1832 and 1833?
Battle of Gonzales
What was the “Organic Law”?
created in Texas by “The Consultation” in 1835, it outlined the organization and functions of a new Provisional Government
When did the Alamo fall?
March 6, 1836
What happened in Goliad?
nearly 400 Texans were executed by order of Santa Anna
What was the decisive battle of 1836 that ended the Texas Revolution?
Battle of San Jacinto, Texans under Sam Houston routed the Mexican Army and captured Santa Anna
Did the battles stop after the Battle of San Jacinto?
No, fighting continued around the border as expeditions and raids were sent back and forth
What president signed Texas into the Union?
James Polk
Texas was the (#) state to enter the union.
What caused the Mexican-American War?
disputes over claims to Texas boundaries, which became fixed at the Rio Grande as a result
What year did Texas secede from the Union?
Where and when was the last land battle of the Civil War fought?
Battle of Palmito Ranch in south Texas, 1865 (more than a month after General Lee’s surrender)
What year was Texas readmitted into the Union?
What governor began a 100 year run by the democratic party in Texas?
Richard Coke (he beat Davis)
It is not enough for students to just memorize facts about history. They must be actively engaged in historical thinking. Why?
-analysis of history helps people avoid mistakes of the past
-promotes development of good citizenship
-helps students know how individuals are connected with all humans
Using a map to show the spread of the black plague throughout the worlds teaches what social studies concept?
cause and effect
What major unresolved issues did the civil rights movement of the 1960’s address?
a. causes of civil war
b. problems with social security
c. reconstruction era after civil war
d. the vietnam war
c. reconstruction era after the civil war
Who was Dr. Ralph Bunch?
First person of color anywhere to win a Nobel Peace Price for his work with the United Nations
The declaration of independence gave notice to the world that the American colonies were
no longer a colony of great britain
What is the Continental Divide and why is it important?
In Americas, is the line that divides the flow of water drainage to either the pacific or atlantic ocean
Where is the Continental Divide in the Americas?
North America: northwestern canada along rocky mountains to new mexico, then along Mexico’s Sierra Madre Occidental.
South America: along Andes mountains
Which continent does NOT have a continental divide?
What is the Mariana Trench?
The deepest part of the earth
What is terrace farming?
farming technique designed to conserve water and space (think rice paddies in japanese mountains)
The earth is a globe and can be divided into numerous lines called
latitude and longitude
A 4th grade class is learning how to make budgets. This teaches students…
an understanding of how to spend and save money
Which Supreme Court landmark decision adversely affected the factors contributing to causes of the civil war?
Dred Scott vs. Sanford
What governmental procedure is in place to keep the power of the federal judicial branch in check?
president appoints supreme court judges
How do people become Judges in the Supreme Court?
They are picked by the president
Why was Marbury vs. Madison important?
it set a precident for the doctrine of judicial review
What was a major effect of the industrial revolution?
Increase worker productivity
What does the law of supply and demand state?
The amount of items available directly affects the price per item
What is Autocracy?
Form of government in which one person posesses unlimited power. That one person is considered the dictator.
What is an oligarchy?
Rule by a small number of people.
What is cultural diffusion?
spread of culture (tools, language, ideas, beliefs) within a culture or from one culture to another
Using oral biographies to research the Great Depression is most likely to help the student…
obtain insight into the values and beliefs of individuals
(not educational backgrounds of individuals)
What is absolute advantage?
when one country can produce a good more efficiently that another country
What is absolute location?
the exact position on a globe using addresses, grid coordinates, or long/lat
What is affirmative Action?
efforts to hire/recruit minorities and women that that underrepresented
What is allocation?
process of choosing a need to satisfy and how much resources to use in satisfying that need
How are amendments added to (or make changes to) the constitution?
proposed by 2/3rds vote of both houses, or at request of 2/3rds of state legislators. Ratified by approval of 3/4ths of states.
What is anarchy?
absence of any form of political authority. (usually resulting from a failure of government)
What time frame is referred to as “Ancient History”
the beginnings of human society through 300 CE (slightly before the early middle ages)
What is appellate court?
a court authorized to hear appeals
What is apportionment?
distribution of legislative seats according to population
What are the Articles of Confederation?
first document created to govern the newly formed government after the American Revolution
-created a “firm league of friendship” among the 13 original states
-states agreed to send delegates to the Confederation Congress
-each state got one vote
What is “the direct trading of goods and services without the involvement of money” called?
When was the Constitution ratified?
What was “Brown v. Board of Ed. of Topeka” and when did it take place?
-supreme court declared that “separate but equal” facilities are NOT legal under 14th Amendment
what can you do to ensure that a portfolio is a valid assessment?
develop a rubric for grading on regular basis, use as part of students grade
The student’s self assessments should be linked to
the teachers observations of the students reading strategies
What should a teacher do to encourage the social dimensions of reading?
develop cooperative learning and literacy groups
What is the most important consideration regarding cultural appropriateness when judging materials for for the reading classroom?
avoiding stereotypes and enhancing authentic portrayal of cultural group
Teaching students to research and write reports in history is a good example of what approach to reading?
integrated approach to reading
Thomas Hardy’s novels can be used in a thematic unit teaching about what?
the irony of fate
Using learning logs and oral discussions to respond to a book is an example of what concept?
Integrated Language Arts
What is the integrated approach to learning?
combining two subjects, such as history and reading
-combining reading and language arts is also considered integrated learning
What strategy is best to increase comprehension levels of students struggling with a science textbook?
provide advanced organizers
-encourage students to use charts and graphs as they read
What is meant by “integrated language arts”?
activities, strategies, and teaching methods that combine reading and language arts
(reading, writing, interpretation of literature, etc)
What is the Norman Conquest?
-led by william the conquerer
-victory at battle of hastings led to Norman control of england
-started rivalry between england and france
What are the three major economic systems?
-traditional systems
-command systems
-market systems
What are some Common Rimes (or Common Word Families)?
at: mat, fat, cat
op: hop, stop, mop
ate: skate, late, rate
Who was Robert La Follete?
-progressive Wisconsin senator/governor
-opposed railroad trusts, WWI, league of nations
What are semantic clues?
Type of context clue
-decoding unfamiliar word using surrounding words in a text
-provides information about meaning of the word
What is Reciprocal Teaching?
-teacher and students discussion
-involves questioning, predicting, summarizing, and clarification of words and ideas
-increases metacognition and active learning
What is trade surplus?
when a nation exports more than it imports
Who explored the Louisiana Territory and led an expedition of the mississippi river to the Pacific Ocean?
Lewis and Clark
List the New England Colonies.
-Rhode Island
-New Hampshire
What do students do in Evaluative Comprehension?
-judge, analyze, evaluate character by applying own personal attitudes and beliefs
-examine point of view
-think critically about the text
What percentage of the earth’s surface is covered by oceans?
What are some characteristics of the Free Enterprise System?
-economic freedom
-voluntary exchange
-private property rights
-profit motive
What is alliteration?
successive words that begin with same consonant sound or letter
Ex: peter piper picked a pack of pickled peppers
List some reading strategies?
-decoding skills
What are some activities that enhance comprehension?
-prereading activities
-KWL charts
-previewing vocabulary words
-asking questions
What region of texas is used for farming cotton and wheat, major oil production, and includes amarillo, lubbock, kerrville?
the great plains
Who was the 16th president?
Who signed the Emancipation Proclamation?
President Lincoln
What are rubrics?
-measures a specific objective
-uses a range of indicators
-arranged in levels
-helps students be more thoughtful in judging the quality of their work
What are the First 10 amendments called and what is their overall purpose?
Bill of Rights
-protects individuals freedoms
The history of words and how they were developed is known as?
What are graphemes?
letters/symbols that represent phonemes (sounds)
What was the Panic of 1893?
serious economic depression in US that began in 1893
-caused by railroad overbuilding, leading to series of bank failures
-worst depression in US until the Great Depression
What are vowel dipthongs (and some examples?)
vowel pairs that make one blended sound
ew in new, oi in toil, ou in shout, etc
“oi in boil, uy in buy, oy in toy, and ou in grout” are all examples of what?
vowel dipthongs
What is affective domain?
Attitudinal and emotional areas of learning, such as values and feelings
-moral teaching?
What does an aptitude test measure?
natural ability
-predicts subsequent performance
What is phonetic segmentation?
Counting the sounds heard within a word
What are the minimal sound units that can be represented by letters?
What is divergent thinking?
An open ended type of thinking
-extends in different directions and considers multiple answers to a question
Which is better, extrinsic or intrinsic motivation?
extrinsic motivation
What is the difference between inductive and deductive reasoning?
both used in research to establish hypothesis
-basically opposites
DEDUCTIVE reasoning comes to conclusion based on predetermined generalizations
-begins with the general and ends with the specific
INDUCTIVE reasoning makes new generalizations after looking at events
-begins with specifics and moves to the general
What is altitude?
the height of something above earth’s surface/sea level
What is a biome?
major regional or global biotic community
-charactized mostly by dominate forms of plant life and prevailing climate
Ex: grassland, desert, tundra
What is the GNP?
Gross National Product
-total market value of all goods and services produced in US in one year
-in terms of current dollar rates
What is the law of supply?
-at higher prices, more of an item will be supplied
-if too much is produced, the price drops, and less is supplied
What is capitalism?
The means of production are privately owned
-prices determined by supply and demand
-businesses are free to channel resources
What is meant by “baseline” in terms of a students theirself?
current level the child is functioning at before instruction
What is semantic mapping?
organizing in a chart format
Which court case overturned the “Seperate but Equal” doctrine?
Brown v. Board of Education
What were the 6 flags that have flown over texas?
Spain, France, Mexico, Texas, Confederacy, U.S.
What is comprehension?
relationship between the knowledge of a word/idea and its meaning
What was Plessy v. Ferguson?
-set standard of “seperate but equal”
What was Mapp v. Ohio
any illegally obtained evidence cannot be used in court
-extended to state courts
-called “exclusionary rule”
What is meant by “emergent readers”?
children usually ages 2 to 5
-developing important oral language skills
-beginning to notice and play with words
What is word analysis?
extensive set of knowledge about written language and strategies
-permit readers to determine sounds of words and meanings as they read
What is phonological awareness?
becoming aware of language as an object that can be analyzed and manipulated
What is phonemic awareness?
being able to hear each seperate sound in a word as individual units (phonemes)
What are the smallest unit of speech sounds called?
What is the difference between phonological awareness and phonemic awareness?
-phonological awareness deals with words and syllables
-phonemic awareness individual sounds (phonemes)
What makes a word a “sight word”?
one that we see enough that we do not have to sound it out or resort to strategies
-words that we recognize instantly
What is morphemic analysis?
use of prefixes and suffixes to break a word apart for both its meaning and pronunciation.
-helpful in later stages of word analysis
What does “chunking words” mean?
breaking words into smaller units
-sometimes called structural analysis or syllabication
If a child writes “I LV MI CT” what does that tell us?
they know much about letter-sound relationships with initial and final consonants
-but is only beginning to develope awareness of vowels
As a word identification strategy, structural analysis would be most effective in helping eight graders determine the meaning of which word?
-can divide the word into biblio (books) and phile (one who loves
What is structural analysis?
dividing an unfamiliar word into parts to determine the meaning
Enlightenment thinkers most influenced subsequent developments in European history by doing what?
applying reason and scientific method to the study of all aspects of social and political life
What is Discovery Learning?
approach to teaching
-students exposed to specific examples and use them to discover general principles and relationships
-students use examples to come to own conclusions
Why was Sam Houston important?
Led Texan army against Mexico

President of the Republic of Texas
Senator for Texas
Govenor of Texas

What is an idiom?
expression that does not mean what its parts say
“kick the bucket” meaning “to die” and not actually kicking a bucket
What is a grapheme?
smallest part of WRITTEN language that represents a phoneme in the spelling of a word

ex: b, d, f, p, s, ch, sh, th, -ck, ea, -igh

What is “syntax”?
sentence patterns and structure, or grammar, of language

syntax cues are used by readers in constructing meaning from print

What are the levels in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs?
all humans have 5 basic needs

higher levels are not attempted to be reached until lower are met

Physiological: food, water shelter
>>Belonging: love
>>>Self Esteem
>>>>Self Actualization: seeking to discover and develop oneself

What is absolute advantage?
ability of a producer to produce higher quantity of a good with the productive resource available
What defines a capitalist economy?
economy which uses market-determined prices to guide buyers decisions about production and distribution of goods
-generally have productive resource which are privately owned
What is comparative advantage?
ability of a producer to produce a good at lower marginal cost than other producers

-marginal cost in sacrifice of some other good compared to the amount of a good obtained

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