test1

aristotelian scholasticism
the more ive read the more rite i am i think therefore I am
non-renewable resources
once depleted their no longer available
natural resources
subsistence and energy sources needed to survive water trees raw materials and land
ecological footprint
enviro impact from individual or populations use and consumption of land and natural resources regurarly used and needed for survival
overshoot
using more resources that can be sustained (using 30% more than can be sustained today)
John Muir
helped found sierra club and preservation ethic
preservation ethic
protect environment and natural resources
Gifford Pinchot
helped found US forest service and conservation ethic
conservation ehtic
were responsible to manage natural resources in sustainable way
Aldo Lepold
1st to articulate eco centric ethic wrote the land ethic
Teddy Rosevelt
worked with Muir said need to protect sierra nevadas
ecofeminisim
men being in power it main cause of social and enviromental problems
sustanibility
requires that humans use natural resources only @ rate that they can be replaced living within earth means of reproducing the resources we use that support life. It is circular.
natural capital
earths accumulated wealth of resources
principals of sustanibility#1
do not produce waist of pollutants faster than they can be cleane violatd by depletion of natural resources
enviromental degredation
loss of bio-diversity (violating principals of sustanibility #1
best first principle
use best rescources first (Violating principals of stanibility #1)
principals of sustanibility#2
humans part of system on earth society and enviroment are interconected violated w/o policys to protect enviromet
principals of sustanibility#3
ethics morals equality and fairness toward enviroment and life violated by unequal opportunity for human dev
principals of sustanibility#4
social incentives (rewards) for those who act in sustainable way. violated by not being enviromentally and ethically stable
sierra club
biggest non government advocate of the enviroment
animal rites
biggest cultural shift and moral shift
moral extension
extended morals to ecocentric views w/ invention of animal rites
rachel carson
book ‘silent spring helped ger pesticide policys and baned DDT and other volitle chemicles.
david brower founded many enviromental organazations sierra club, john muir instute and friends of earth
sustainable development finding natural ways to safeguard natural systems while raising standard of living for poor people
intergenerational ethics musth think of future in todays use of ethics
carying capicity how manyhumans earth can hold at our basic needs (kinda like sustanibility)
crude birthrate persons borne per one thousand peope per year (opportunities for women lower this rate
crude death rate persons that die per one thousand people per year (children dind less often maes this lower)
Death rate/birth rate both going down but death rate goes down faster so pop grows
exponential population growth pop mutiplying grows very rapidly doubles every so often
geo metric pop growth slowly growing population
enriromental services natural process that regulate condition to make planet sustanable like water cycle forests adn wind
Gros domestic product DGP is value of goods and services provided in country
less devolped naion GDP less than 10000$
more devolped nations GDP more than 10 000$
Garet harden wrote tragity of the commones policy to protest commingcommenly used resources from depletion
demographic transition modle of economic and cultural change proposed in 1950s by frank notestein to explain declining death reates and birth rates that have occured in industrilized
population density number of individuals within a population per unit area
enviromental resistance collective force of limiting factors which together stabilize a populaiton size and its carying capicity
age distribuition relative number of organisims of each age within a population age. population growth of decline often represented as ratio of age
agriculture practice of cultivation soil to producing crops and raise live stock for humans use and consumption
george perkins marsh book man and nature
john wesley powell exploration of colorado river and its canyons did survey to see if good for homestead…. no
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david brower
founded many enviromental organazations sierra club, john muir instute and friends of earth
sustainable development
finding natural ways to safeguard natural systems while raising standard of living for poor people
intergenerational ethics
musth think of future in todays use of ethics
carying capicity
how manyhumans earth can hold at our basic needs (kinda like sustanibility)
crude birthrate
persons borne per one thousand peope per year (opportunities for women lower this rate
crude death rate
persons that die per one thousand people per year (children dind less often maes this lower)
Death rate/birth rate
both going down but death rate goes down faster so pop grows things affecting nutrition, diet drinking hto hygiene infectious dieseas
exponential population growth
pop mutiplying grows very rapidly doubles every so often
geo metric pop growth
slowly growing population
enriromental services
natural process that regulate condition to make planet sustanable like water cycle forests adn wind
Gros domestic product
DGP is value of goods and services provided in country
less devolped naion
GDP less than 10000$
more devolped nations
GDP more than 10 000$
Garet harden
wrote tragity of the commones policy to protest commingcommenly used resources from depletion and life boat ethics
demographic transition
modle of economic and cultural change proposed in 1950s by frank notestein to explain declining death reates and birth rates that have occured in industrilized
population density
number of individuals within a population per unit area
enviromental resistance
collective force of limiting factors which together stabilize a populaiton size and its carying capicity
age distribuition
relative number of organisims of each age within a population age. population growth of decline often represented as ratio of age
agriculture
practice of cultivation soil to producing crops and raise live stock for humans use and consumption
george perkins marsh
book man and nature
john wesley powell
exploration of colorado river and its canyons did survey to see if good for homestead…. no
externality
spillover of an economic transaction is an impact on a party that is not directly involved in the transaction. In such a case, prices do not reflect the full costs or benefits in production or consumption of a product or service. raido in story of stuff
Human Development Index (HDI)
is an index used to rank countries by level of “human development”, which usually also implies whether a country is developed, developing, or underdeveloped.
less developed nations
gdp less than 1000$ poor health and education
Lifeboat ethics
is a metaphor for resource distribution proposed by Garrett Hardin The lifeboat is in an ocean surrounded by a hundred swimmers. The “ethics” of the situation stem from the dilemma of whether (and under what circumstances) swimmers should be taken aboard the lifeboat.
more developed nations
gdp greater than 10000 better opportuiities
transcendendentalists
protest against the general state of culture and society, transcendentalists’ core beliefs was an ideal spiritual state that ‘transcends’ the physical and empirical and is only realized through the individual’s intuition, rather than through the doctrines of established religions and literature started by emmerson
wast assimilation
principal of sustanibility #1 socity does nor produce waste faster than nature can assimilate (absorb) it
Wilderness
or wildland is a natural environment on Earth that has not been significantly modified by human activity
lynn white
White’s article “The Historical Roots of Our Ecologic Crisis” was based on the premise that “all forms of life modify their context”, that is: we all create change in our environment. He believed man’s relationship with the natural environment was always a dynamic and interactive one
age classes
reproductive years….before during and after
baby boomers
1946–1955 after ww2 resulated in oongoing population boom
Histograms
Histograms are used to plot density of data
doubling time
the period of time required for a quantity (population) to double in size or value
occures in exponential growth
hunting and gathering
A hunter-gatherer society is one whose primary subsistence method involves the direct procurement of edible plants and animals from the wild, foraging and hunting without significant recourse to the domestication of either. NO AGRICULTURE exists
Population momentum
refers to population growth at the national level which would occur even if levels of childbearing immediately declined to replacement level.[1] For countries with above-replacement fertility (greater than 2.1 children per woman), population momentum represents natural increase to the population. For below-replacement countries, momentum corresponds to a population decline.
Replacement level fertility
is the level of fertility at which a population exactly replaces itself from one generation to the next. In developed countries, replacement level fertility can be taken as requiring an average of 2.1 children per woman. In countries with high infant and child mortality rates, however, the average number of births may need to be much higher.
population histogram
a graph showing the values of one or more variables plotted against time or against frequency of occurrence. A graph of a patient’s temperature, pulse, and respiration is an example of a histogra
maximum intrinscic growth rate
maximum ustainable growth rate
Weak sustainability:
Manufactured capital of equal value can take the place of natural capital
total fertility rate
average number of children born per female member of a population during her lifetime
population
group of individuals or species that live in same area
logistic eqation
growth rises sharply but falls off as as limiting factors become stronger (limiting factors environmental resistance)
enviromental resistance
stabilizes the pop size to it’s caring capicity
limiting facor
availability of food water mates shelter temp disease predators. Plants are limited by sunlight and moisture and soil chemistry disease and plant eating animals
density dependent factors
high pop density can help find mates, but can increase competition and disease….pop rises more enviromental resistance there is
density independent factors
not influenced by pop density, temp floods fires and other natural disasters can wipe out large pops without regard to density.
age structure
Categorization of the population of communities or countries by age groups, allowing demographers to make projections of the growth or decline of the particular population.
system
network of relationships among components that interact with and influence one anouther through exchange of matter or information
renewable resources
always available, sun wind timber, water, soil renew slowly over time
resource depletion
non renewable resources minerals curide oil are in finite supply foarmed much much slower
pollution
release of matter or energy into the environment that causes negative unwanted impats on health of life
theory
widely accepted explanation. because of many experiments proving something
eco centric ethics
living and non living elements all portins of environmental life
bio centric
ethics for all living things
anthropocentric ethics
is a human centered view of lifes interactin with enviroment

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