Terms Fall, Winter, and Spring

Rate
Number of responses per unit of time.
Duration
A measure of the total extent of time in which a behavior occurs.
Latency
Elapsed time from the onset of a stimulus to the initiation of a response.
Interresponse Time
The elapsed time between two successive responses.
Dimensions of Applied Behavior Analysis (Naming)
Behavioral, Applied, Technological, Conceptually Systematic, Analytic, Generality, Effective.
Behavioral
Entails precise measurement of the actual behavior in need of improvement and documents that it was the subject’s behavior that changed.
Applied
Investigates socially significant behaviors with immediate importance to the subject.
Technological
The written description of procedures used in the study is sufficiently complete and detailed to enable others to replicate it.
Conceptually Systematic
Behavior change interventions are derived from basic principles of behavior.
Analytic
Demonstrates experimental control over the occurrence and nonoccurence of the behavior–that is, if a functional relation is demonstrated.
Generality
Produces behavior change that lasts over time, appear in other environments, or spread to other behaviors.
Effective
Improves behavior sufficiently to produce meaningful results for the participant.
Positive Reinforcement
When a behavior is followed immediately by the presentation of a stimulus that increases the future frequency of the behavior under similar conditions.
Negative Reinforcement
When a behavior is followed immediately by the termination of a stimulus that increases the future frequency of the behavior under similar conditions.
Stimulus
Any physical change that affects an organism through its receptor cells.
Stimulus Class
A group of stimuli that share specific common elements along formal, temporal, and/or functional dimensions.
Behavior
Something a person does.
Response Class
A group of responses of varying topography, all of which produce the same effect on the environment.
Positive Punishment
When a behavior is followed immediately by the presentation of a stimulus that decreases the future frequency of the behavior under similar conditions.
Automatic Reinforcement
Reinforcement that occurs independently of the social mediation of others.
Negative Punishment
When a behavior is followed immediately by the removal of a stimulus that decreases the future frequency of the behavior under similar conditions.
Shaping
The differential reinforcement of successive approximations to a terminal behavior.
Functional Relation
When a well-controlled experiment reveals that a specific change in one event can reliably be produced by specific manipulations of another event.
Extinction
To discontinue reinforcement of a previously reinforced behavior resulting in a decrease in the frequency of the behavior.
Premack Principle
Making the opportunity to engage in a high-probability behavior contingent on the occurrence of a low-frequency behavior will function as reinforcement for the low-frequency behavior.
Token Economy
A system where participants earn generalized conditioned reinforces as an immediate consequence for specific behaviors and exchange them later for backups.
Conditioned Reinforcer
A previously neutral stimulus that functions as a reinforcer because of prior pairing with one or more reinforcers.
Unconditioned Reinforcer
A stimulus change that functions as reinforcement even though the learner has no particular learning history with it.
Variable Interval Schedule of Reinforcement
A schedule of reinforcement that provides reinforcement for the first correct response following the elapse of variable durations of time occurring in a random or unpredictable order.
Fixed Interval Schedule of Reinforcement
A schedule of reinforcement in which reinforcement is delivered for the first response emitted following the passage of a fixed duration of time.
Variable Ratio Schedule of Reinforcement
A schedule of reinforcement requiring a varying number of responses for reinforcement.
Fixed Ratio Schedule of Reinforcement
A schedule of reinforcement requiring a fixed number of responses for reinforcement.
Unconditioned Punisher
A stimulus change that acts as a punisher even though the learner has no particular learning history with it.
Conditioned Punisher
A previously neutral stimulus that functions as a punisher because of prior pairing with one or more punishers.
Stimulus Control
When a behavior occurs more frequently in the presence of a stimulus than in its absence.
Discriminative Stimulus
A stimulus in the presence of which a particular response will be reinforced or punished.
Echoic
Verbal operant involving a response that is evoked by a verbal discriminative stimulus that has point-to-point correspondence and formal similarity with the response.
Mand
Verbal operant that is evoked by a motivating operation and specifies its own reinforcer.
Tact
Verbal operant evoked by a nonverbal discriminative stimulus and followed by generalized conditioned reinforcement.
Intraverbal
Verbal operant that is evoked by a verbal discriminative stimulus and that does not have point-to-point correspondence with that verbal stimulus.
DRA
Differential Reinforcement of an Alternative Behavior – stopping the reinforcement for an existing behavior while reinforcing a desirable alternative behavior.
DRI
Differential Reinforcement of an Incompatible Behavior -stopping the reinforcement for an existing behavior while reinforcing a behavior that is incompatible.
DRO
Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior – reinforcement is contingent on the absence of the problem behavior during a specific time.
Behavior Contrast
When a change in one component of a multiple schedule that increases or decreases the rate of responding on that component is accompanied by a change in the response rate in the opposite direction on the other, unaltered component of the schedule.
Matching Law
The allocation of responses to choices available on concurrent schedules of reinforcement are distributed in proportions that match the rates of reinforcement received from each choice alternative.
Behavior Momentum
The tendency of behavior to persist following changes in environmental conditions.
Errorless Learning
After an Sd is delivered, an immediate prompt is provided that decreases the opportunity for incorrect choice selection.
Stimulus Generalization
The behavioral contingencies in the presence of one stimulus affect the frequency of the response in the presence of another stimulus.
Response Generalization
The extent to which a learner emits untrained responses that are functionally equivalent to the trained target behavior.
Behavior Cusps
A behavior that has consequences that extend well beyond the specific change itself because it exposes the person to new environments, reinforcers, contingencies, responses, and stimulus controls.
Motivating Operation
An environmental variable that (a) alters the reinforcing or punishing effectiveness of a stimulus,; and (b) alters the current frequency of all behavior that has been reinforced or punished by that stimulus.
Task Analysis
The process of breaking a complex skill of series of behaviors into smaller, teachable, units.
Chaining
A sequence of discrete responses where each response produces a stimulus change that simultaneously serves as a conditioned reinforcer for the response it produced and an Sd for the next response in the sequence.
Fading
A procedure for transferring stimulus control in which features of an antecedent stimulus controlling a behavior are gradually changed to a new stimulus while maintaining the current behavior.

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