Teaching Student Centered Mathematics

Conceptual understanding
Comprehension of mathematical concepts, operations, and relations
Procedural fluency
Skill in carrying out procedures flexibly, accurately, efficiently, and appropriately
Strategic competence
Ability to formulate, represent, and solve mathematical problems
Adaptive reasoning
Capacity for logical thought, reflection, explanation, and justification
Productive disposition
Habitual inclination to see mathematics as sensible, useful, and worthwhile, coupled with a belief in diligence and one’s own efficacy
Constructivism
Learners are creators of their own learning, give meaning to things they perceive or think about
Instrumental understanding
Ideas have been memorized, unlikely to be useful for constructing new ideas. (Knowing the skill)
Relational understanding
Each new concept is not only learned but is also connected to many existing ideas, so there is a rich set of connections
How much to tell and not to tell
Introduce mathematical conventions: symbolism and terminology should be introduced after concepts have been developed and then specifically as a means of expressing or labeling ideas
Discuss alternative methods: propose method and identify it as “another” way not the only or the preferred way
Clarify students’ methods and make connections
Three-phase lesson format
Before: preparing students to work on the problem. When planning, analyze the problem to anticipate possible misconceptions and plan questions
During: students explore the problem. Opportunity to find out what your students know, how they think, and how they are approaching the task you have given them
After: students work as a community of learners, discussing, justifying, and challenging various solutions to the problem. Teacher is reinforcing precise terminology, definitions, or symbols
Differentiation
Planning lessons around meaningful content, grounded in authenticity, recognizing each student’s readiness, interest, and approach to learning and connecting content and learners by modifying content, process, product, and the learning environment
Differentiating Content
Student’s readiness typically informs the level of complexity or depth at which the content is initially presented for different groups of students. Interest and learning profiles tend to inform differentiation geared towards breadth.
Differentiating Process
Teachers can use different strategies or encourage students to take different “roads” to increase access to the essential information, ideas, and skills embedded in a lesson
Differentiating Product
Allows a variety of ways for students to demonstrate their understanding of essential content
Differentiating Learning Environment
Attending to students’ needs which affects the seating arrangement, specific grouping strategies, access to materials, and other aspects of the classroom environment
Parallel Tasks
Two or three tasks that focus on the same big idea but offer different levels of difficulty
Open Questions
A question that can be solved in a variety of ways or can have different answers
Tiered Lessons
You set the same goal for all students, but different pathways are provided to reach those learning goals. You must first decide which category to tier: content, process, or product. Characteristics: address the same learning goals, require students to use reasoning, and are equally interesting to students (content examples: parallel tasks and open questions)
Aspects to tier lessons
Degree of assistance, Structure of the task, complexity of the task(s), and complexity of process
Mathematics as a Language
Conceptual knowledge (what division is) is universal, however, procedures (how you divide or factor) and symbols are culturally determined and are not universal
Culturally Responsive Instruction
For all students! Includes consideration for content, relationships, cultural knowledge, flexibility in approaches, use of accessible learning contexts, a responsive learning community, and working in cross-cultural partnerships. Strategies for differentiation: communicate high expectations, make content relevant, communicate the value in students’ identities, and model shared power.
Response to Intervention Tier 1
Represents the core instruction for all students based on high-quality mathematics curriculum, instructional practices, and progress-monitoring assessments (80-90%)
Response to Intervention Tier 2
Represents students who did not reach the level of achievement expected during tier 1 instructional activities. Receive supplemental targeted instruction outside the core mathematics lessons that uses more explicit strategies, with systematic teaching of critical skills and concepts, more intensive and frequent instructional opportunities, and more supportive and precise prompts (5-10%)
Response to Intervention Tier 3
For students who need more intensive periods of instruction, sometimes with one-on-one attentions, which may include comprehensive mathematics instruction or a referral for special education evaluation or special education services (1-5%)
One-way communication strategies
letters sharing the goals of a unit, websites where resources and curriculum information are posted, and newsletters
Two-way communication strategies
log of student work (signed or commented on by parent), PTA meetings/open houses, and one-on-one meetings, class or home visits
Three (or more)-way communication strategies
family math nights, conferences (with parent and child), and log/journal of student learning with input from student, parent, and teacher
Fraction Misconception: students think that the numerator and denominator are separate values and have difficulty seeing them as a single value
Help:Find fractions on a number line, measure with inches to various levels of precision, avoid the phrase “three out of four” or “three over four”; instead say “three-fourths”
Fraction Misconception: students do not understand that 2/3 means two equal-size parts
Help: students need to create their own representations of fractions across various types of models, provide problems where all of the partitions are not already drawn
Fraction Misconception: students think that a fraction such as 1/5 is smaller than a fraction such as 1/10 because 5 is less than 10. Conversely, students may be told that the bigger the denominator, the smaller the fractions leading to the belief that 1/5 is more than 7/10
Help: many visuals and contexts that show parts of the whole, ask students to provide their own example to justify which fraction is larger
Fraction Misconception: students mistakenly use the operation “rules” for whole numbers to compute with fractions (1/2 + 1/2 = 2/4)
Help: ask students to connect to a meaningful visual or example, include estimation in teaching operations with fractions
Fraction Constructs: Part-Whole
part of a whole: shading a region, part of a group of people, part of a length (how many parts)
Fraction Constructs: Measure
involves identifying a length and then using that length as a measuring unit to determine the length of an object (how much or how long)
Fraction Constructs: Division
the idea of sharing one whole with another whole (sharing $10 with 4 people). Students should understand and feel comfortable with the various written representations of the division of a fraction
Fraction Concepts: Operator
used to indicate an operation such as a fraction of a whole number (2/3 of the audience was holding banners). requires mental math to determine the answer
Fraction Concepts: Ratio
Part-Whole and Part-Part constructs. students have to use the context to make sense of the part-part and part-whole relationships
Partitioning
emphasizes the concept of part-whole and avoids the confusion with division.
Iterating
“repeating a process”; counting fractional parts to see how multiple parts compare with the whole helps students understand the relationship between parts and the whole (length models)
Connecting Fractions and Decimals
A decimal is a special case of a fraction in which the denominator is part of the base-ten number system, so it can be written in this was as a convention. For example 0.03 is “three-hundredths”, which can be written as 3/100 or as 0.03.
Ways to ensure connection: say decimal forms correctly and use fraction models
Decimal Misconceptions
Longer is Larger (more digits is largest)
Shorter is Larger (because the digits far to the right represents very small numbers, longer numbers are smaller)
Internal zero (confusion with zero in tenths position, zero has no impact)
Less than zero (since 0 is a whole number it is greater than a decimal fraction)
Reciprocal thinking (incorrectly converting to fractions)
Equality (don’t integrate the idea of regrouping decimals)
Part-to-part ratios
A ratio relating one part of a whole to another part of the same whole
Part-to-whole ratios
Ratio expressing a comparison of a part to a whole
Ratios as Quotients
Ex: if you can buy 4 kiwis for $1.00, the ratio of money for kiwis is $1.00 to 4 kiwis
Ratios as Rates
Involve two different units and how they relate to each other. Miles per gallon, square yards of wall coverage per gallon of paint, passengers per busload, and roses per bouquet.

*A rate represents an infinite set of equivalent ratios

Proportional Reasoning Strategy: Reasoning
Unit rate and scale factor can be used to solve many proportional situations mentally
Proportional Reasoning Strategy: Ratio Table
Show how two variable quantities are related. Serve as tools for applying buildup strategy but can also be used to determine unit rate. Neither variables nor equations are needed so it is less abstract than using proportions
Proportional Reasoning Strategy: Double-Line Comparison
A line segment is partitioned in two different ways or increments.
Proportional Reasoning Strategy: Percents
All percents can be set up as equivalent fractions. Using a line segment, represent the number or measures in the problem on one side of the line and indicate the corresponding values in terms of percents on the other
Proportional Reasoning Strategy: Cross Products
When using cross products, students should be encouraged to reason in order to find the missing value, rather than just to apply the cross-products algorithm. (ex. create a visual, solve the proportion)
Van Hiele Levels of Geometric Thought
Level 0: Visualization: shapes and what they look like to groupings of shapes that seem to be “alike”
Level 1: Analysis: classes of shapes rather than individual shapes to properties of shapes
Level 2: Informal Deduction: Properties of shapes to the relationships among properties of geometric objects
Level 3: Deduction: relationships among properties of geometric objects to deductive axiomatic systems for geometry
Level 4: Rigor: deductive axiomatic systems for geometry to comparisons and contrasts among different axiomatic systems of geometry
Shapes and Properties
Page 267-278
Process of Measuring
1. decide on the attribute to be measured
2. select a unit that has that attribute
3. compare the units – by filling, covering, matching, or using some other method – with the attribute of the object being measured. The number of units required to match the object is the measure
Tips for Teaching Measurement Estimation
1. create lists of visible benchmarks for students to use
2. discuss how different students made their estimates
3. accept a range of estimates
4. encourage children to give a range of estimates that they believe includes the actual measure
5. make measurement estimation an ongoing activity
6. be precise with your language, and do not use the word “measure” interchangeably with the word “estimate”
Categorical Data
Bar Graphs and Pie Charts are the only graphs that can be used for non-numerical data
Numerical Data
Bar Graphs, Pie Charts, Stem-and-Leaf Plots, Line Plots and Dot Plots, Histograms, and Box Plots
Mean: Leveling Interpretation
A number that represents what all of the data items would be if they were leveled (size of leveled bars is the mean)
Mean: Balance Point Interpretation
measure of the “center” of the data (move data points in toward the center or balance point without changing the balance around that point. When you have all points at the same value, that is the balance, or the mean)
Probability: Likely or Not Likely
Focus on impossible, possible, and certain to have students make predictions about how likely a particular occurrence is
Probability
a measure of the chance that the event will occur
Theoretical Probability
the likeliness of an event happening based on all possible outomes
Experiments
Some probabilities cannot be determined by the analysis of possible outcomes of an event; instead, they can be determined only through an experiment, with a sufficiently large number of trials conducted to become confident that the resulting relative frequency is an approximation of the theoretical probability
Independent events
the occurrence or nonoccurrence of one event has no effect on the other
Dependent Events
a dependent event is a second event whose result depends on the result of a first event
Probability Misconceptions
1. commutativity confusion: the combination of two girls and one boy can be written as three events, not one.
2. gambler’s fallacy: the notion that what has already happened influences the event
3. law of small numbers: students expect small samples to be like the greater population

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