Summer 2016

The definition of Philosophy
A. One Nominal/Rough Definition: The Study of Ideas.

B. The Etymology of Philosophy: philia + sophia

C. Some Nominal/Rough Definitions (taken from The American Heritage Dictionary):
1. The investigation of causes and underlying reality.
2. Inquiry into the nature of things based on logical reasoning rather than by empirical methods.
3. The critique and analysis of fundamental beliefs as they come to be conceptualized and formulated.
4. The synthesis of all learning.
5. The science comprising logic, ethics, aesthetics, metaphysics and epistemology.

D. The Classical, Systematic Definition of ‘Philosophy’: The Science of First Causes and Ultimate Principles of the Natural World, Using Natural Reason.
1. Science.
2. First Causes and Ultimate Principles of the Natural World.
3. Using Natural Reason.

The Branches in Philosophy
A. Theoretical Philosophy vs. Practical Philosophy
1. Theoretical philosophy (like other theoretical disciplines–e.g., astronomy) investigates questions which are intrinsically important in hopes of discovering answers which are valued for their own sake (and not because the answers are useful). The goal of this branch of philosophy (like other theoretical disciplines) is to discover the truth.
2. Practical philosophy (like other practical disciplines) investigates questions which are practically important in hopes of discovering answers which can be put into action. The goal of this branch of philosophy (like other practical disciplines–e.g., engineering) is to discover truth for the sake of action.
B. Two Types of Theoretical Philosophy
1. Ontology–the study of the underlying nature of reality. Literally, ontology is the study of being. It is sometimes called ‘metaphysics.’
2. Epistemology–the study of the origins and nature of knowledge.
C. Two Branches of Practical Philosophy (Axiology)
1. Ethics–the study of moral principles. With respect to human action, the focus is on human conduct.
2. Aesthetics–the study of the principles of art and beauty. With respect to human action, the focus is on what humans make.
Define Logic
the art of human reasoning. Logic is a tool used in philosophy (as well as in most other disciplines).
The Nature and Aim of Education
A. One definition of ‘education:’ the activity of fostering or transmitting excellences using certain kinds of methods such as instruction, training, and practice (William Frankena).
B. Five Central questions for any philosophy of education.
1. What is the ultimate end or aim of education?
2. What excellences are to be cultivated? What is the (most important) content of the curriculum?
3. How does one teach this material in order to develop these excellences? What is the best method(s) of instruction?
4. What is the teacher’s role in education?
5. What is the nature of the student?
C. How the Philosophy of Education Connects with the Central Divisions of Philosophy:
1. In raising questions about the aim of education, the philosophy of education touches on issues of practical philosophy, viz., Ethics.
2. In raising questions about the most important content of the curriculum, the best sorts of teaching methods, and the teacher’s role, the philosophy of education touches on issues of Epistemology and, in some ways, Ethics.
3. In raising questions about the nature of the student, and the aim of education in so far as that aim is grounded in an account of what is means to be a human being, the philosophy of education touches on issues of Ontology.
A. Socrates (c. 470-399 B.C.)
1. He was born in Athens and came from middle class background–the son of a stonemason and a midwife. He thought of himself, not as a professional teacher (i.e., a Sophist), but as a midwife of the soul.
2. He was ridiculed for his appearance, yet allegedly was robust of both mind and body.
3. He was very different from other philosophers who preceded him. The focus of his philosophical predecessors was on the basic causes of things in nature. For Socrates, the focus is on human beings, ethics, and on induction and the definitions or essences of things (e.g., what is courage? piety?).
4. Although he perhaps is the most famous philosopher in the history of Western philosophy, Socrates never wrote any books. What we know about his philosophical views comes from other sources, principally his most famous student, Plato.
B. Plato’s Life (c. 428-347 BC)
1. He was born in Athens and came from an aristocratic background. According to Diogenes Laertius, his given name was Aristocles. ‘Plato’ is a nickname which means ‘broad’ as in ‘broad-shoulders.’
2. Plato originally planned to be a poet and to be active in the political affairs of the intensely democratic Athens. But he later became disgusted with the behavior of both the tyrants who ruled Athens after the Peloponnesian War, as well as the democrats who overthrew them. Attracted by the charismatic Socrates, Plato pursues a life of philosophy.
3. After Socrates was executed, Plato left Athens for Italy and Sicily. Upon his return he founded the Academy (c. 388/7 BC), a famous school which continued to function until A.D. 529. Except for seven years in Syracuse, Plato stayed in Athens and died there in 347.
Plato’s work
C. Plato’s works are typically divided into an early, middle, and late period.
1. Early period. Most of the dialogues in this period conclude with no definitive result. One discovers what something (e.g., piety) is not, but not what it is. The clearest expression of what the historical Socrates was like comes from this period. Early dialogues include the Apology, Crito and Meno. The bulk of the first book of the Republic also belongs in this period.
2. Middle period. In this period it seems clear that Plato is propounding his own views. The Socratic method is less prominent (and sometimes absent altogether). Republic II-X is from this period.
3. Late period. Plato seems to reconsider and modify some of his earlier claims about the ideal state, the theory of forms, and the use of dialectic.
: Plato’s Apology
II. The Apology

A. A central question–What is most important in life?

B. Socrates’ answer– “All I do is to go about and try to persuade you, both young and old, not to care for your bodies or your monies first, and to care more exceedingly for the soul, and to make it as good as possible. . . ” (p. 436). This dialogue is not only a defense of Socrates against the accusations of Miletos et. al. It is also a defense of the philosophic life–a life which
prizes not only wisdom but the moral virtues above everything else.

C. The Charges Against Socrates:
1. Corrupting the young.
2. Not worshiping the gods of Athens (in effect, of impiety).

D. Some questions to consider (feel free to add others):
1. Why would Athens find a seventy year-old man with apparently no political ambitions dangerous?
2. What do you think of Socrates’ answer to the question ‘What is most important in life?’
3. What does Socrates’ example say about the importance of a teacher?

Plato’s Crito
III. The Crito

A. The main question–Should Socrates escape from prison?

B. Crito argues that Socrates should escape; Socrates argues that the just course of action is to remain in prison and submit to the Laws of Athens.

C. Some questions to consider (feel free to add others):
1. A perennial ethical question concerns the proper relationship between the individual person and the community. Does Socrates’ example offer an answer to this question?
2. How does Socrates’ dialogue with Crito offer a model for good teaching?
3. Should Socrates escape from prison?

Idealism
I. Idealism: is the view that mind and spiritual values are fundamental in the world as a whole (Encyclopedia of Philosophy).
Many versions of idealism maintain:
(1) What is non-material (spirit/ idea/ reason/ mind) is more significant (more real) than matter (the body/ what is physical/ what is observable through the senses).
(2) The human being is not (or not only) a material being. Humans also have minds, and our minds are not reducible to the brain or any physical processes.
(3) Humans have a free will; our actions are not entirely determined by biological or social factors.
(4) Knowledge is primarily acquired by using our reason and not primarily by relying on sense-experience or observation.
(5) God exists and is a perfect, uncreated spirit who is more fundamental than any of the things that God created.
(6) The ultimate aim of human life is to become more and more like the ideal (God/ the Good/ the perfect fulfillment of the Moral Law).
. Plato’s Idealism.
1. Ontology: Plato maintains that ideas (such as the ideals of perfect beauty and goodness) are more real than particular material things (such as a beautiful sunset or a good person). This is because ideas are unchanging and timeless whereas particular material things are always changing. Human beings are able to grasp these ideas by means of our intellect, which is the most important part of our immortal soul.

2. Epistemology: Plato maintains that knowledge is the apprehension of unchanging truths. Hence, the objects of knowledge are the unchanging ideas (Forms). Opinion, on the other hand, falls between knowledge and ignorance (cf. Republic V, p. 277; cf. Republic VI, pp. 308-311). Opinion may be either true or false.

3. Ethics: Plato maintains that the best types of lives involve knowledge of the ideas, such as ideal Justice and ideal Goodness (i.e., the Good). People who lead inferior types of lives settle for opinions about what is right or wrong. The city is best led when its guardians have knowledge about Justice and the Good. Note that Plato maintains that true ethical knowledge is not a matter of mere subjective opinion.

Plato’s The meno
A. The Central Question of the Meno–Can Virtue be Taught?

B. Issues that this central question raises:
1. What is virtue?
2. What is teaching? What is learning?
3. What is knowledge? What is (right) opinion?

C. Some questions to consider (feel free to add others):
1. Are there different types of virtues (excellences)? If so, on what basis should they be distinguished?
2. Can all virtues be taught? Or can only some virtues be taught? Why? If only some virtues can be taught, then which ones?
3. Is teaching and learning correlative, or can there be one without the other? Why?
4. Socrates maintained that learning is recollection. What did he mean by this claim and why did he think it was true? What other meaning(s) could be given to this claim and why think, under these alternative interpretations, that such claim could be true?

In Plato’s Republic, what is his central thesis and defense about Justice?
A. One of Plato’s Central Theses: Justice is valuable for its own sake and not only for its consequences. Hence, it is better to be just than unjust even when the unjust seem to profit more than the just do.

B. Plato defends this view by discussing justice on a large scale and on a small scale. The former concerns justice with respect to the city. The latter concerns justice with respect to the individual. Justice, when all is said and done, is a right order among the different parts of the city and parts of the soul. The following chart highlights some of the key points in Plato’s argument:

According to Plato’s Republic, who Should Receive the Ideal Education?
1. The Guardians should receive the ideal education in order that they become wise rulers. One belongs to the Guardian class on the basis of merit and natural ability, not on the basis of family heritage or wealth (cf. Republic II, pp. 171-173).
2. Women (at least those women who belong to the Guardian class) should receive the same education as men (cf. Republic V, pp. 246-255).
Define the following 4 terms; Conjecture Belief Understanding Reason
Conjecture is the state of opinion that grasps images such as shadows and reflections.
Belief is the state of opinion that grasps objects such as animals, trees, and artifacts.
Understanding is the state of knowledge that grasps thought-images and ideas such as those used in mathematics and geometry.
Reason is the state of knowledge that grasps ideas and ideals such as perfect Beauty, Justice, and Goodness. Notice that this kind of knowledge is higher than mathematical knowledge.
Realism
I. Realism: is the view that material objects exist externally to us and independently of our sense experience (Encyclopedia of Philosophy). It is primarily opposed to idealism, especially versions of idealism which maintain that humans can only know things as they appear to us and so cannot know the natures of things as they exist in themselves.

A. Different versions of Realism: There have been a number of different realists in the history of Western philosophy. Some of the most important realists are: Aristotle (384-322 B.C.), Thomas Aquinas (13th cent.), John Locke (17th cent.), Thomas Reid (18th cent.), Bertrand Russell and Jacques Maritain (20th cent.).

Many versions of realism maintain:

(1) Knowledge of reality does not alter the nature of what is; hence, dependable knowledge of the real world is possible (and, in some cases, actually in our possession).
(2) Human nature is distinguished from the natures of other animals by our ability to reason.
(3) The primary means of gaining knowledge is through observation and experience and not, as many idealists maintain, by relying primarily on reason.
(4) Truth is the correspondence between the mind and reality.

Some versions of realism (e.g., Aristotle, Thomas Aquinas, Jacques Maritain) would agree with idealists who maintain that the human being is not (or not only) a material being, that humans have a free will, and that there is a God. Russell, on the other hand, rejected these theses.

. Aristotle’s Realism:
1. Ontology: Aristotle rejected Plato’s theory of Forms, which maintained that ideas are more real than and exist apart from particular material things (cf. Nicomachean Ethics I, 6; A Philosophy Reader, pp. 23-24). But he agreed with Plato that there is a kind of cause–formal cause–which explains why some particular thing has the kind of nature that it has.
Building on Plato, Aristotle distinguished four kinds of causes, two of which are intrinsic to the things themselves, and two of which are external to the things themselves:
Building on Plato, Aristotle distinguished four kinds of causes, two of which are intrinsic to the things themselves, and two of which are external to the things themselves:
Intrinsic Principles

(1) Material cause–the stuff out of which something comes to be (e.g., the wood in a table).
(2) Formal cause–the structure which makes something to be the kind of thing it is (e.g., the shape and structure of a table).

All material things, including human beings, are composed of matter and form. The form is related to the matter as what is actual is related to what is potential.

Extrinsic Principles

(3) Efficient cause–that factor which makes something to exist or to have a certain feature (e.g., the carpenter who makes the table).
(4) Final cause–that for the sake-of-which something is done (e.g., the purposes or functions that the table serves).

Along with the four kinds of causes that he distinguished, Aristotle maintained that existing things form a hierarchy, a great chain of being:

Along with the four kinds of causes that he distinguished, Aristotle maintained that existing things form a hierarchy, a great chain of being:
God–pure Actuality, immaterial, unchanging and eternal.
Separated Substances–immaterial movers of the planets and stars (cf. angels).
Humans–material substances distinguished by an intellectual soul. The human being is distinguished from other animals by the powers of intellect and will.
Animals–material substances distinguished by a sensitive soul. Animals are distinguished by powers of sensation, appetite and, for most, locomotion.
Plants–material substances distinguished by a vegetative soul. Plants are distinguished from inanimate substances by the powers of growth, self-maintenance, and reproduction.
Inanimate substances–material substances that do not have a soul.
Aristotle’s Epistemology:
Aristotle was drawn towards the scientific and the empirical. He did not agree with Plato that the sensory world is semi-illusory or unfit to be an object of knowledge. Instead, Aristotle maintained that all of our knowledge starts from experience. Indeed, the intellect of a newborn is a blank slate until it is, as Maritain put it, “fecundated by
sense-perception and sense-experience” (Education at the Crossroads, p. 30). It is through experience of the world that our intellects come to recognize the essential natures of different kinds of things.
Aristotle’s ethics
3. Ethics: Aristotle agrees with Plato that true ethical knowledge is not a matter of mere subjective opinion. He denies, however, that the best human life involves becoming become more and more like some ideal (e.g., the Good). Instead, the ultimate aim of human life–our “most final” final cause–is happiness. Since our nature as human beings is to be rational, our happiness is rational activity done virtuously over a complete lifetime (Nicomachean Ethics I,7; A Philosophy Reader, p. 25). Since ‘reason’ involves both the intellect and the emotions, happiness includes the exercise of both the intellectual and the moral virtues.
Romantic naturalism
I. Naturalism (more specifically, Romantic Naturalism) is the view that nature in general and humans in particular are inherently good. This view is primarily opposed to philosophies and religions which insist that nature is something evil to be conquered and that human nature is prone to evil (because of, e.g., original sin).
B. Rousseau’s (1712-1778) Naturalism.
B. Rousseau’s (1712-1778) Naturalism. In addition to what is included in the definition above, Rousseau maintains:

1. Ontology: Like Aristotle, Rousseau believed that we need to understand what human nature is in order to understand what happiness is. However, Rousseau rejected Aristotle’s emphasis on the rational part of human nature. Rousseau believed that the passions (e.g., compassion, love) are more important in human nature than reason. The passions indicate a person’s self-conception: what that person deems important, what that person’s boundaries are, and what endangers and supports those boundaries. The passions also indicate how a person will likely act in a given situation. When our self-conception is true (i.e., when we really are what we think we are), then our passions will serve us well. But when our self-conception is flawed, our passions will likely direct us to things that we do not really need, and that may even harm us.
Rousseau also denied Plato’s and Aristotle’s claim that humans are naturally social. The “natural man” is free, self-sufficient, and independent.

I. Existentialism:
I. Existentialism: a theory that holds that human existence is not exhaustively describable in either scientific or idealistic terms; it emphasizes an analysis of critical situations in human life, e.g., anxiety, suffering, and guilt, in order to show the need for making decisive choices in an uncertain, contingent, and apparently purposeless world.
Soren Kierkegaard
19th century theist and existentialist
Friedrich Nietzsche
19th century theist existentialist
Fyodor Dostoevsky
19th century existentialist theist
Gabriel Marcel
20th century existentialist theist
Karl Jaspers
20th century existentialist theist
Martin Heidegger
20th century agnostic existentialist
Jean-Paul Sartre
atheist existentialist 20th century
Albert Camus
atheist existentialist 20th century
Simone DeBeauvoir
20th century atheist existentialist
1.Why did you choose to be part of the WW development work at Purdue?
2.How do you perceive and describe your…- relationship between self & WW?- experience of collaboration of SOE/CAS?- involvement in getting WW started?- role in WW development/collaboration?
3.What was the best part of collaborating on the WW development for you?
4.What was the biggest challenge to collaborating on the WW development for you?
5.What changes do you associate with the experience in the WW program and yourown practice?
6.What feelings were generated by this collaborative experience?
7.What thoughts stood out for you?
8.Describe you first [last, most memorable, etc] experience w/ WW.
9.Describe your experience throughout your involvement with WW.
10.What are the biggest challenges youforeseefor the WW program at Purdue?
11.What hopes do you have for the WW program at Purdue?
12.Have you shared all that is significant with reference to your experience?
How does eye tracking works?
Infrared illuminators built into the screen or in the mobile eye tracker glasses, invisible to the human eye, create reflection patterns on the cornea of the eyes, which the image sensors use to register the image of the user’s eyes.

The image processor finds the eyes, detects the exact position of the pupil and identifies the correct reflections from the illuminators and their positions.

A mathematical model calculates the eye position in space and the point of gaze.

At the start of an eye tracking session, the system calibrates the user’s eyes to ensure it is tracking them correctly (it copes with users wearing glasses or contact lenses).

The system records what the user is looking at throughout the session. For screen-based eye tracking, the researcher observes the live gaze on a separate screen which shows eye movement, overlaid as a red blob with a trail, moving around the screen.

In mobile studies, eye tracking glasses record the user gaze then the data is downloaded into the system for analysis.

Eye tracking analysis software uses heat-maps and gaze-plots to illustrate what has attracted attention.

Data collected includes visualisations (a list of web pages and who has looked at them) and the gaze plot showing order of gaze, length of fixation and time elapsed.

Different gaze plots for each web page can be compared in the analysis software and each recording played back in real time, showing the order of gaze with the audio recording. Heat-maps show where the eye has lingered the longest.

Researchers also use an ‘area of interest’ tool which provides quantitative data to measure and compare different places on a screen.

This analysis software allows data interpretation and recommendation of design and navigation improvements.

Other optional analysis tools include Cluster, Bee Swarm, data exported to statistical or video analysis software, depending on the depth of analysis needed.

The eye tracker can reveal problems with a website, software or learning materials very quickly and provide visual evidence to help a development team solve usability issues.

The mobile eye tracker provides data on studies involving physical objects or things displayed on large displays or projection screens, for example interactive TV, actual print media and physical product design and packaging.
How we’ve used eye tracking for learning

We are always aiming to help our students to learn more effectively and easily.

The Open Languages Research Group used Eye tracking data to reveal Chinese language learning amongst beginner students.

The team needed to explore the learner perspective during synchronous online language tutorials for learning Chinese, to enhance our Beginners’ Chinese module.

In this research study ten mature learners of Beginners’ Chinese participated in eye tracking and stimulated recall interviews using the eye tracker data.

The team were able to use the eye tracker for comparing the reading skills of different learners in a static reading task, depending on their level of Chinese.

It showed some clear differences in the way parts of the language tool were used depending on the level of individual Chinese reading skills

Eye tracking also helped them observe the way that interactive tasks of reading and speaking during a synchronous tutorial were utilised by the students and tutor to advance their learning and teaching.

Preliminary findings revealed learner strategies when using Pinyin support text (which the study revealed can sometimes undermine learning strategies for some students).

The eye tracking studies of synchronous online tutorials showed the extent to which students used social presence of others in the session when learning.

This research is useful as it can potentially allow language teachers participating in targeted training understand the cognitive load on students when learning online.

studies
Observational study (mere observations, collected data in a way that does not directly interfere with how the data arise, only establish an association, RETROSPECTIVE: uses past data, PROSPECTIVE: data are collected throughout the study — e.g. since the study doesn’t make use of random assignment, it’s an observational study.)

Experiment (randomly assign subjects to treatments and can establish causal connections)

observational study
confounding variable
In statistics, a confounder (also confounding variable or confounding factor) is a variable that influences both the dependent variable and independent variable causing a spurious association. Confounding is a causal concept, and as such, cannot be described in terms of correlations or associations.
what can we conclude from observational study? how about from experiment?
observational studies only allow us to observe correlations while experiment allow us to infer causation — random assignment IS THE MOST IMPORTANT DIFFERENCE BETWEEN OBSERVATIONAL STUDIES AND EXPERIMENTS
Why might conducting a census might not always a good idea?
conducting a census might not always a good idea because some individuals are hard to locate and these people may be different from the rest of the population. Also, populations rarely stand still.
for your inference to be valid your sample must be ?
representative of the entire population
a few sources of sampling bias
convenience sample — individuals who are easily accessible are more likely to be included in the sample

Non-response — If only a (non-random) fraction of the randomly sample people respond to a survey such that the sample is no longer representative of the population — E.G. there is an initial random sample, but not everyone in this random sample is reached. therefore the issue is non-response of the sample individuals

WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE between voluntary response bias and non-response bias?
To recap, the difference between voluntary response bias and non-response bias, is that in non-response there is a random sample that is surveyed, but the people who choose to respond are not representative of the sample, while in voluntary response there is no initial random sample.
simple random sampling
In simple random sampling, we randomly select cases from the population, such that each case is equally likely to be selected. This is similar to randomly drawing names from a hat.
stratified sampling
In stratified sampling, we first divide the population into homogenous groups called strata, and then randomly sample from within each stratum. For example, if we wanted to make sure both genders are equally represented in a study, we might divide the population first into males and females, and then randomly sample from within each group. In cluster sampling, we divide the population into clusters, randomly sample a few clusters, and then sample all observation within these clusters. The clusters, unlike strata and stratified sampling, are heterogeneous within themselves, and each cluster is similar to another, such that we can get away with just sampling from a few of the clusters.
multistage sampling
multistage sampling adds another step to cluster sampling. Just like in cluster sampling, we divide the population into clusters, randomly sample a few clusters, and then we randomly sample observations from within these clusters. Usually, we use cluster sampling and multistage sampling for economical reasons. For example,
4 principles of experimental design
The four principles of experimental design are control, randomize, replicate, and block. To control, means to compare treatment of interest to a control group. To randomize, means randomly assigning subjects to treatments. To replicate, means collecting a sufficiently large sample within the study or to replicate the entire study. The last principle of experimental design is blocking. If there are variables that are know or suspected to effect the response variable, first group the subjects into blocks based on these variables.
why would we have a treatment and a control groups?
If we suspect that the treatment might affect our strata differently (presuming that we divided our sample into strata)and then we randomly assign these strata to treatment and control groups, therefore, the strata are equally represented in the resulting treatment and control groups. I.e., If we do find a difference in the measure between the treatment and control groups we will be able to attribute it to the treatment, and can be assured that the difference isn’t due to the uniqueness of our strata since the strata were equally represented in the treatment and control groups
So, how do we tell the difference between a blocking variable and an explanatory variable?
Explanatory variables also sometimes called factors, are conditions we can impose on our experimental units. Blocking variables, on the other hand, are characteristics that the experimental units come with, that we would like to control for. Blocking is basically like stratifying, expect used in experimental settings when randomly assigning as opposed to when sampling.
what is a placebo?
placebo is fake treatment, often used as the control group for medical studies. The placebo effect is when experimental unit show improvement simply because they believe they’re receiving a special treatment
what is blinding?
Blinding is when experimental units do not know whether they are in the control or the treatment groups.
what is a double-blind study?
double-blind study is one where both the experimental units and the researchers do not know who is in the control and who is in the treatment group.
a study is designed to test the effect of light level and noise level on exam performance of students. the researcher also believes that light and noise levels might have different effects on males and females, so wants to make sure both genders are represented equally under different conditions. what are the explanatory and blocking varibles?
the researchers are interested in the effect of light and noise on exam performance. since they believe these two variables might be affecting the outcome, these are the explanatory variables and exam performance is the response variable. Gender of the student is a nuisance variable they want to control for, hence they block for it. unlike light and noise, gender is not a treatment that is being imposed on the subjects
what is a random assignment?
Random assignment or random placement is an experimental technique for assigning human participants or animal subjects to different groups in an experiment (e.g., a treatment group versus a control group) using randomization, such as by a chance procedure (e.g., flipping a coin) or a random number generator
what is random sampling?
A random sample is a sample taken at random from a population of data. In a random sample every element in the population has an equal chance of being selected.
So in summary, a study that employs random sampling and random assignment, can be used to make causal conclusions, and these conclusions can be generalized to the whole population
So in summary, a study that employs random sampling and random assignment, can be used to make causal conclusions, and these conclusions can be generalized to the whole population
Such human experiments that rely on volunteers employ random assignment, but not random sampling. These studies can be used to make causal conclusions, but the conclusions only apply to the sample, and the results cannot be generalized.
Such human experiments that rely on volunteers employ random assignment, but not random sampling. These studies can be used to make causal conclusions, but the conclusions only apply to the sample, and the results cannot be generalized.
A study that uses no random assignment, but does use random sampling, is your typical observational study. Results can only be used to make correlation statements, but they can be generalized to the population at large.
A study that uses no random assignment, but does use random sampling, is your typical observational study. Results can only be used to make correlation statements, but they can be generalized to the population at large.
A final type of study, one that doesn’t use random assignment or random sampling, can only be used to make correlational statements, and these conclusions are not generalizable. This is an un ideal observational study.
A final type of study, one that doesn’t use random assignment or random sampling, can only be used to make correlational statements, and these conclusions are not generalizable. This is an un ideal observational study.
standarized z score
standarized z score of observation is number of standard deiviations it falls above or below the mean Z – (observation – mean ) / SD
The null hypothesis must always include the concept of e
The null hypothesis must always include the concept of equality, which means that it must include the logical operators equal, less or equal , or greater or equal. On the other hand, the alternative hypothesis must always express the logical opposite of the operator used for the null hypothesis, which means it should always include not equal, greater than, or less than.
Null hypothesis:
It must always include equal operator, less than operator, or greater or equal operator.
Alternative hypothesis:
If the null expresses equal operator, the alternative expresses not equal operator.
If the null expresses less or equal , the alternative expresses greater than.
If the null expresses greater or equal, the alternative expresses less than.
The alternative hypothesis Ha
or H1 must always express the logical opposite of the operator used for the null hypothesis H0. In this case, the logical opposite of H0?2 is Ha>2
.
Ha>2
Depending on the alternative hypothesis operator, greater than operator will be a right tailed test, less than operator is a left tailed test, and not equal operator is a two tailed test.
Alternative hypothesis has the greater than operator, right tailed test.
Alternative hypothesis has the less than operator, left tailed test.
Alternative hypothesis has the not equal operator, two tailed (left and right) test.
The alternative hypothesis operator is greater than which gives a right tailed test.
Right tailed test
Determination of critical values
Critical values for a test of hypothesis depend upon a test statistic, which is specific to the type of test, and the significance level, ?, which defines the sensitivity of the test. A value of ? = 0.05 implies that the null hypothesis is rejected 5 % of the time when it is in fact true. The choice of ? is somewhat arbitrary, although in practice values of 0.1, 0.05, and 0.01 are common. Critical values are essentially cut-off values that define regions where the test statistic is unlikely to lie; for example, a region where the critical value is exceeded with probability ? if the null hypothesis is true. The null hypothesis is rejected if the test statistic lies within this region which is often referred to as the rejection region(s).
p-values
Another quantitative measure for reporting the result of a test of hypothesis is the p-value. The p-value is the probability of the test statistic being at least as extreme as the one observed given that the null hypothesis is true. A small p-value is an indication that the null hypothesis is false.
scores on a standarized test are nearly normally distributed with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 20. if these scores are converted to standard normal z scores, which of the following statemenmts will be correct? the mean will be 0 and the median should be roughly 0 as well
scores on a standarized test are nearly normally distributed with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 20. if these scores are converted to standard normal z scores, which of the following statemenmts will be correct? the mean will be 0 and the median should be roughly 0 as well

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