Summa Vocab 2

Compass
to make a circle around, accomplish
check
to stop or make go more slowly, to restrain
novel
markedly new, unique, or different
essay
to attempt
apology
an explanation or defense of one’s beliefs or behavior
uniform
not varying, the same in all cases and times
discriminate
to recognize or show a difference between people or things
dispose
to arrange in a particular way or position, to make ready, to prepare
solemn
not happy or smiling, done, said, seriously
empirical
based on experiments or experience rather than ideas or theories
destiny
what happens to someone or what will happen in the future, especially things that cannot be changed or avoided; fate
gratify
to please or satisfy someone
veiled
hidden
proclaim
to publicly and officially tell people about something important, to show something clearly, to be a sign of something
melancholy
sad, especially a lingering or habitual state of mind
exhilarate
to make someone feel very happy and excited
deplete
to reduce something by a large amount so that there is not enough left
agitate
to argue strongly for something, especially for changes in a law, in social conditon; to upset or anger someone, to shake or stir a liquid
deteriorate
to become worse
mold
to shape
forge
to create
complacent
overly satisfied with oneself
displace
to take the place of something or someone
frivolous
silly or amusing when it is not suitable, having no useful or serious purpose
deficient
not having enough of something, especially something that is essential
spectrum
a complete or wide range of related qualities, ideas, etc.
mentor
an experienced person who advises and helps someone with less experience over a period of time.
notorious
well known for being bad
malice
a feeling of hatred that causes a desire to do harm
pious
having or showing a deep respect for God and religion
foresee
to think something is going to happen in the future, to predict
pedantic
too worried about small details or rules
esteem
to regard with respect
autonomy
the ability to act and make decision without being controlled by anyone else
accord
an agreement, especially a formal one between two organizations, countries, etc.
disclose
to reveal
tranquil
quiet and peaceful
anarchy
lack of government, order, or control
vulgar
rude and likely to offend
migrate
to move from one place to another
sarcasm
saying the opposite of what one means in order to hurt someone
allude
to refer to indirectly
partisan
showing too much support for one person, group, and cause
enigma
a person, thing or situation that is mysterious and difficult to understand
coincide
to occur at the same place or time
empathy
the ability to understand another person’s feelings or experience
fatal
causing or ending in death, causing disaster or failure
diligent
showing care and effort in one’s work
margin
the edge of a place, group, or situation, especially one separate from the main area. The amount by which something suceeds
ritual
a series of predetermined actions, especially as part of a religious ceremony.
acclaim
enthusiastic praise or applause
fuse
to join together
icon
an admired symbol of an particular idea, way of life, etc.
defiant
openly refusing to obey, or resisting someone or something
patronize
not giving something enough care and attention
contemplate
to think deeply about something for a long time
pessimism
a tendency to take the gloomiest view of a situation
affluent
wealthy
manifest
to show clearly, especially a feeling, an attitude or a quality, to appear or become noticeable
discreet
careful in what one says or does, in order to keep something secret or to avoid causing embarrassment; cautious
finite
having a definite limit or fixed size
tenacious
that does not stop holding something or give up something easily; determined
defer
to put off something to a later time, to yield to someone’s wishes, opinion etc out of respect
integral
being an essential part of something
terminate
to end, to make something end
embellish
to add decorations, to add details to a story especially ones that are not true
premise
a statement or an idea that forms the basis for a reasonable line of arguement
resilient
able to recover quickly, for example from bending or illness
intelligible
that can be easily understood
antagonism
a feeling of hostility or opposition
eminent
famous and respected, especially in a particular profession
fluctuate
to change frequently in size, amount, quality especially from one extreme to another
comprise
to have someone or something as parts or members
equivocal
not having one clear or definite meaning or intention, able to be understood in more than one way
discrete
independent of other things of the same type
exasperate
to annoy or irritate someone very much
deviate
to be different from something; to do something in a different way from what is usual or expected
epidemic
a large number of cases of a particular disease happening at the same time in a particular community
mandate
the authority to do something
comply
to obey a rule, an order
deduce
to draw logical conclusion based on information or evidence
erode
to wear away the surface of something through the action of wind rain, to gradually destroy or weaken something
hazard
a danger
improvise
to make or do something using whatever is available, usually because the necessary thing are not available, to produce something, such as music or a statement, without previous planning
decorum
polite behavior
pronounce
to give an opinion or a decision especially officially or publicly
pervade
to spread throughout
disillusion
to destroy someone’s belief in or good opinion of something or someone
catastrophe
a sudden event that causes great suffering
predominant
having more power or influence than others; more noticeable
marine
connected with the sea
paradigm
a typical example or pattern of something
mediate
to try to bring to an agreement
abolish
to officially end a law, a system, or an institution
mobile
quickly and easily moveable
remorse
extreme sorrow for what one has done
tact
skillful in dealing with difficult or embarrassing situations
turbulent
containing sudden, often violent, change or confusion
chronic
lasing for a long time difficult to cure or get rid of
rebut
to show that a statement or criticism is false
cue
an action or event that is a signal for someone to do something
mediocre
not very good; of only average standard
audible
able to be heard clearly
versatile
able to do many different things or having many different uses
satire
mockery designed to expose folly, evil, or incompetence
denote
to be a sign of something, to have as a literal or obvious meaning
preliminary
happening before a more important action or event
domain
an area of knowledge or activity, lands owned or ruled by a particular person goernment especially from the past
cynic
someone who believes that all people are motivated by selfishness
convene
to arrange for people to come together for a formal meeting
zeal
great energy or enthusiasm
orthodox
following generally accepted beliefs
diverge
to separate and go in different directions
liability
legal responsibility, a person or thing that causes many problems, the amount of money that a person or company owes
renown
fame and admiration because of something one has done
meditate
to think deeply, usually in silence
venture
a business project or activity, especially one that involves taking risks
amend
to change something slightly to fix a mistake or to improve it
exuberant
full of energy, excitement, and happiness, strong and healthy; growing quickly and well
digress
to turn aside from the main subject
recluse
someone who lives alone and avoids other people
commodity
a product or a raw material that can be bought and sold, a thing that is useful or has a useful quality
apprehend
to seize of arrest, to understand something
ideology
a set of ideas that an economic or political system is based on
venerate
to have and show great respect for someone or something especially someone or something that is considered to be holy or very important
elaborate
to describe or explain something in greater detail
oratory
the skill of making powerful and effective speeches in public
aristocracy
people of the highest social class
stagnate
to stop developing or making progress
averse
not liking something; opposed to doing something
obsess
to fill the mind of someone continuously to the exclusion of other thoughts
offset
to use one cost, payment, or situation in order to cancel, or reduce the effect of another; to balance
idiosyncrasy
a person’s particular way of behaving thinking especially when it is unusual, an unusual feature
fiscal
connected with government or public money especially taxes
warrant
a legal document that is signed by a judge and gives the police authority to do something, an acceptable reason for doing something
qualitative
connected with how good something is rather than with how much of it there is
subordinate
to treat something as of lesser importance than something else
protocol
a system of rules and procedures to be followed, as at official meetings, in experiments,etc
aggregate
to combine separate items, sets of data, etc into a single group or total
legislate
to make a law affecting something
subsidy
money paid by a government or an organization to reduce the cost of goods or services for those who buy them; price support
commence
to begin to happen; to begin something
mortal
that cannot live for ever and must die, causing death or likely to cause death; very serious
parameter
something that decides or limits the way in which something can be done
allocate
to give something officially to someone or something for a particular purpose
accent
a special importance that is given to something
civic
connected with a town or city
deploy
to move soldiers or weapons into a position where they are ready for military action, to use something effectively
append
to add something to the end of a piece of writing
debut
the first public appearance of a performer or sports player
infrastructure
the basic systems and services that are necessary for a country or an organization to run smoothly, for example buildings, transport and water and power supplise
lyric
expressing a person’s personal feelings and thoughts, connected with or written for singing
concurrent
exist or happening at the same time
inquisition
a series of questions that someone asks, especially when asked in an unpleasant manner
scruple
a feeling that prevents one from doing something that may be morally wrong
collective
done or shared by all members of a group of people; involving a whole group or society
oblivious
lacking awareness
predecessor
someone or something that did a job before someone or something else
belie
to give a false impression of someone or something
linger
to remain for longer than expected
archaic
very old fashioned, from a much earlier or ancient period of history
bizarre
very strange or unusual
cherish
to love someone or something very much and want to protect them or it, to maintain an idea, a hope or a pleasant feeling for a long time
cliche
an overused expression
benign
showing kindness or gentleness, not dangerous or likely to cause death
squander
to waste money, time, in a stupid careless way
formidable
inspiring fear and/or respect
evade
to escape from or avoid
exacerbate
to make something worse, especially a disease or problem
invaluable
extremely useful
exalt
to raise someone to a higher rank or position, to elevate by praise or in estimation
mitigate
to make less harmful, serious, or severe
folly
a lack of good judgement; the fact of doing something stupid
caricature
an exaggerated drawing or description that makes someone or something seem ridiculous
strive
to try very hard to achieve something
confound
to confused and surprise someone, to prove someone or something wrong
manuscript
a copy of a book piece of music before it has been printed, a very old book or document that was written by hand before printing was invented
proximity
nearness
thwart
to prevent
despise
to dislike and have no respect for someone or something
astute
clever and insightful
renaissance
a renewed interest after a period of neglect
cryptic
with a meaning that is hidden or not easily understood
authoritative
that can be trusted and respected as true and correct
ominous
suggesting that something bad is going to happen in the future
conscientious
taking care to do things carefully and correctly
banish
to order someone to leave a place especially a country as a punishment, to make go away to get rid
exonerate
to officially state that someone is not guilty
ingenious
having or resulting from clever new ideas
replicate
to be or make an exact copy of something
heed
to pay careful attention to someone’s advice or warning
condone
to accept behavior that is morally wrong or to treat it as if it were not serious
lofty
very high and impressive, deserving praise because of its high moral quality
withstand
to be strong enough not to be hurt or damaged by extreme conditions
whimsical
unusual and not serious in a way that is either amusing or annoying
amiable
pleasant, friendly, and easy to like
mar
to damage or spoil something good
devoid
completely lacking
esoteric
understood or enjoyed by only a few people with a special knowledge or interest; obscure
duplicity
dishonest behavior intended to make someone believe something which is not true; lying

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