Can you name the world’s tallest mountain, longest river, and deepest lake? Click on the map to learn about Earth’s most extreme places! Incarnate Encyclopedia O Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Thames River, London The Thames River in London is the most important river in England. It is the main source of Loon’s water supply. Incarnate Encyclopedia Sandy Stockpile/Corgis Steamboat Steamboats used to be an important way to travel and to ship goods, especially on the Mississippi and Missouri rivers. This boat is a modern copy of a 1 9th-century steamboat.
Incarnate Encyclopedia David R. Frazier/Photo Researchers, Inc. Colorado River in the Grand Canyon The Colorado River runs along the bottom of the Grand Canyon in Arizona. The river created the canyon over millions of years by slowly wearing through rock. Incarnate Encyclopedia David Munch/Corgis SST. Pall’s Lutheran school Six Sparrows Emmanuel Detail Foyers Floods A flood is an overflow of an expanse fatter that submerges land. [l] The European Union (EX.)
Floods Directive defines a flood as a covering by water of land not normally covered by water. ] In the sense of ‘flowing water”, the word may also be applied to the inflow of the tide. Flooding may result from the volume of water within a body of water, such as a river or lake, which overflows or breaks levees, with the result that some of the water escapes its usual boundaries.  While the size of a lake or other body of water will vary with seasonal changes in precipitation and snow melt, it is not a significant flood unless such escapes of water endanger land areas used by man like a village, city or other inhabited area.
Floods can also occur in rivers, hen flow exceeds the capacity of the river channel, particularly at bends or meanders. Floods often cause damage to homes and businesses if they are placed in natural flood plains of rivers. While flood damage can be virtually eliminated by moving away from rivers and other bodies of water, since time out of mind, people have lived and worked by the water to seek sustenance and capitalize on the gains of cheap and easy travel and commerce by being near water.
That humans continue to inhabit areas threatened by flood damage is evidence that the perceived value of living near the water exceeds he cost of repeated periodic flooding. Earthquake An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth’s crust that creates seismic waves. The seismic, Semitism or seismic activity of an area refers to the frequency, type and size of earthquakes experienced over a period of time. Earthquakes are measured using observations from seismometers.
The moment magnitude is the most common scale on which earthquakes larger than approximately 5 are reported for the entire globe. The more numerous earthquakes smaller than ignited 5 reported by national seismological observatories are measured mostly on the local magnitude scale, also referred to as the Richter scale. These two scales are numerically similar over their range of validity. Magnitude 3 or lower earthquakes are mostly almost imperceptible and magnitude 7 and over potentially cause serious damage over large areas, depending on their depth.
The largest earthquakes in historic times have been of magnitude slightly over 9, although there is no limit to the possible magnitude. The most recent large earthquake of magnitude 9. 0 or larger was a 9. Magnitude earthquake in Japan in 2011 (as of March 2011), and it was the largest Japanese earthquake since records began. Intensity of shaking is measured on the modified Marcella scale. The shallower an earthquake, the more damage to structures it causes, all else being equal .  At the Earth’s surface, earthquakes manifest themselves by shaking and sometimes displacement of the ground.
When the epicenter of a large earthquake is located offshore, the seabed may be displaced sufficiently to cause a tsunami. Earthquakes can also trigger landslides, and occasionally volcanic activity. In TTS most general sense, the word earthquake is used to describe any seismic event -? whether natural or caused by humans that generates seismic waves. Earthquakes are caused mostly by rupture of geological faults, but also by other events such as volcanic activity, landslides, mine blasts, and nuclear tests. An earthquake’s point of initial rupture is called its focus or hypocrites.
The epicenter is the point at ground level directly above the hypocrites. Tsunami A tsunami (plural: tsunamis or tsunami; from Japanese: lit. “harbor English pronunciation: Sis: an:mi/ so-NAH-MME or /TTS: an:mi/ toots-NAH-MME) is series of water waves caused by the displacement of a large volume of a body of water, typically an ocean or a large lake. Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and other underrate explosions (including detonations of underwater nuclear devices), landslides, glacier callings, meteorite impacts and other disturbances above or below water all have the potential to generate a tsunami. 3]
Tsunami waves do not resemble normal sea waves, because their wavelength is far longer. Rather than appearing as a breaking wave, a tsunami may instead initially resemble a rapidly rising tide, and for his reason they are often referred to as tidal waves. Tsunamis generally consist of a series of waves with periods ranging from minutes to hours, arriving in a so-called “eave Wave heights of tens of meters can be generated by large events.
Although the impact of tsunamis is limited to coastal areas, their destructive power can be enormous and they can affect entire ocean basins; the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was among the deadliest natural disasters in human history with over 230,000 people killed in 14 countries bordering the Indian Ocean Hurricanes A tropical cyclone is a tort system characterized by a low-pressure center and numerous thunderstorms that produce strong winds and heavy rain. Tropical cyclones strengthen when water evaporated from the ocean is released as the saturated air rises, resulting in condensation of water vapor contained in the moist air.
They are fueled by a different heat mechanism than other cyclonic windstorms such as northeasters, European windstorms, and polar lows. The characteristic that separates tropical cyclones from other cyclonic systems is that at any height in the atmosphere, the center of a tropical cyclone will be armed than its surroundings; a phenomenon called “warm core” storm systems. The term “tropical” refers both to the geographical origin of these systems, which usually form in tropical regions of the globe, and to their formation in maritime tropical air masses.
The term “cyclone” refers to such storms’ cyclonic nature, with counterclockwise wind flow in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise wind flow in the Southern Hemisphere. The opposite direction of the wind flow is a result of the Acropolis force. Depending on its location and strength, a tropical cyclone is referred to by names such as Racine (1 harriers/, / hearken/), typhoon, tropical storm, cyclonic storm, tropical depression, and simply cyclone. While tropical cyclones can produce extremely powerful winds and torrential rain, they are also able to produce high waves and damaging storm surge as well as spawning tornadoes.
They develop over large bodies of warm water, and lose their strength if they move over land due to increased surface friction and loss of the warm ocean as an energy source. This is why coastal regions can receive significant damage from a tropical cyclone, while inland regions are relatively safe from receiving throng winds. Heavy rains, however, can produce significant flooding inland, and storm surges can produce extensive coastal flooding up to 40 kilometers (25 mi) from the coastline. Although their effects on human populations can be devastating, tropical cyclones can relieve drought conditions.
They also carry heat energy away from the tropics and transport it toward temperate latitudes, which makes them an important part of the global atmospheric circulation mechanism. As a result, tropical cyclones help to maintain equilibrium in the Earth’s troposphere, and to maintain a relatively stable and arm temperature worldwide. Many tropical cyclones develop when the atmospheric conditions around a weak disturbance in the atmosphere are favorable. The background environment is modulated by climatologically cycles and patterns such as the Madden-Julian oscillation, El NIH-Southern Oscillation, and the Atlantic multilateral oscillation.
Others form when other types of cyclones acquire tropical characteristics. Tropical systems are then moved by steering winds in the troposphere; if the conditions remain favorable, the tropical disturbance intensifies, and can even develop an eye. On the other end of the spectrum, if the conditions around the system deteriorate or the tropical cyclone makes landfall, the system weakens and eventually dissipates. It is not possible to artificially induce the dissipation of these systems with current technology.
Tornadoes A tornado is a violently rotating column of air that is in contact with both the surface Of the earth and a cumulonimbus cloud or, in rare cases, the base of a cumulus cloud. They are often referred to as twisters or cyclones,[l] although the word cyclone is used in meteorology, in a wider ensue, to name any closed low pressure circulation. Tornadoes come in many shapes and sizes, but they are typically in the form of a visible condensation funnel, whose narrow end touches the earth and is often encircled by a cloud of debris and dust.
Most tornadoes have wind speeds less than 110 miles per hour (1 77 km/h), are about 250 feet (76 m) across, and travel a few miles (several kilometers) before dissipating. The most extreme tornadoes can attain wind speeds of more than 300 miles per hour (483 km/h), stretch more than two miles (3. 2 km) across, and stay on the ground for dozens of miles more than 100 Various types of tornadoes include the landslips, multiple vortex tornado, and waterspout. Waterspouts are characterized by a spiraling funnel-shaped wind current, connecting to a large cumulus or cumulonimbus cloud.
They are generally classified as non- spectacular tornadoes that develop over bodies of water .  These spiraling columns of air frequently develop in tropical areas close to the equator, and are less common at high latitudes.  Other tornado-like phenomena that exist in nature include the Augustan, dust devil, fire whirls, and steam devil. Tornadoes have been Observed on every continent except Antarctica. However, the vast majority of tornadoes in the world occur in the so-called ‘Tornado Alley” region of the United States, although they can occur nearly anywhere in North America. 7]
They also occasionally occur in south-central and eastern Asia, northern and east-central South America, Southern Africa, northwestern and southeast Europe, western and southeastern Australia, and New Zealand.  Tornadoes can be detected before or as they occur through the use of Pulse-Doppler radar by recognizing patterns in velocity and afflictively data, such as hook echoes, as well as by the efforts of storm spotters. There are several scales for rating the strength of tornadoes.
The Fajita scale rates tornadoes by damage caused and has been replaced in some countries by the updated Enhanced Fajita Scale. An OF or FEE tornado, the weakest category, damages trees, but not substantial structures. An IF or FEE tornado, the strongest category, rips buildings off their foundations and can deform large skyscrapers. The similar TORE scale ranges from a TO for extremely weak tornadoes to TTL 1 for the most powerful known tornadoes.  Doppler radar data, photographer, and ground swirl patterns (colloidal marks) may also be analyzed to determine intensity and assign a rating. 10]
Volcanic eruption During a volcanic eruption, lava, depart (ash, lapin, volcanic bombs and blocks), and various gases are expelled from a volcanic vent or fissure. Several types of volcanic eruptions have been distinguished by paleontologists. These are often named after famous volcanoes where that type of behavior has been observed. Some volcanoes may exhibit only one characteristic type of eruption during a period of activity, while others may splay an entire sequence of types all in one eruptive series. There are three different metastases of eruptions.
The most well-observed are enigmatic eruptions, which involve the decompression of gas within magma that propels it forward. Programmatic eruptions are another type of volcanic eruption, driven by the compression of gas within magma, the direct opposite of the process powering enigmatic activity. The last eruptive metadata is the Paretic eruption, which is driven by the superannuating of steam via contact with magma; these eruptive types often exhibit no enigmatic release, instead causing the granulation of existing rock.