Museum Collection Hum 205

Axia College University of Phoenix WORLD CULTURE AND THE ARTS (AXIA) HUM/205 Jaynelle Nixon January 27, 2008 Museum Collection 2 Classical and Hellenistic Greece One of the most well known piece of this time, is the statue called Ludovisi Gaul killing himself and his wife, also known as The Galatian Suicide. The original was made by Greek sculptors commissioned by Attalus I after his victories over the Gauls of Galatia. This is a statue of A man about to drive a dagger into his chest all while holding a dying woman (his wife) and looking over his shoulder, defiantly.

The original statue was never recovered, however there were many copies commissioned through out different eras and rulers; they were an expression of sentiment. With the use of strong details, bushy hair, and mustaches this statue was made with the style of the time, realism and vivid movement. The violence of the movements is very lifelike, which creates a realalistic look that employs emotion from the viewer. This is a statue from the period where sculpture style was called Pergamene Baroque.

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The artist imitated the preceding centuries by portraying painful moments made expressive with three-dimensional compositions, often V-shaped with anatomical realism. With there being so many copies of the original Ludovisi Gaul killing himself commissioned thru the different periods, styles, and materials the best copy is said to be in the Massimo alle Terme museum of Rome. Museum Collection 3 Etruscan civilization, Republican Rome, and Roman Empire One of the most recognizable structure in ancient Roman history is the Pantheon, it is a building in Rome which was originally built to serve as a temple to “all the gods” of Ancient Rome.

It is one of the best preserved of all Roman buildings, and possibly the best preserved building in its age class in the world. It has been continually used throughout history. The original Pantheon was constructed by Agrippa in 27 B. C. , but the original was destroyed in 80 AD. The Pantheon was rebuilt and the current building dates from about 125 A. D. It was reconstructed during the reign of the Emperor Hadrian. It was totally rebuilt including the text of the original inscription which stated, “Marcus Agrippa, son of Lucius, consul for the third time, built it”.

The building was repaired by Septimius Severus and Caracalla in 202 AD, then during the Medieval times, in 609 A. D. the Byzantine emperor Phocas gave the building to Pope Boniface IV, who in turn converted it into a Christian church and changed the name of the Pantheon to the Santa Maria ad Martyrs; which resulted in the Pantheon being saved from abandonment and destruction. After the Renaissance the Pantheon was used as a tomb, many distinguished figures of the times were buried here, such as the painter Raphael, the composer Arcangelo Corelli, and the architect Baldassare Peruzzi.

Also Architects during this time, like Brunelleschi, used the Pantheon as inspiration when he was designing the Cathedral of Florence’s dome. Museum Collection 4 Islamic Civilization The most well known fiction from the Islamic world was The Book of One Thousand and One Nights, known as Arabian Nights in the West is a compilation of fantasy stories gathered over thousands of years, by many authors, and scholars in various countries. This has been an influential piece of literature in the West, since it was translated in the 18th century by Antoine Galland.

Many of the characters became cultural icons in Western culture, such as Aladdin, Sinbad and Ali Baba. These collections of tales trace their roots back to ancient Arabia and Yemen, ancient India, Persia, Egypt, Mesopotamian Mythology, Syria, and medieval Arabic folk stories. (Wikipedia, 2008) The original manuscript was never found, but several versions date the collection to around AD 800-900. Interestingly enough some of the best known stories from One Thousand and One Nights include Aladdin’s Wonderful Lamp,” “Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves “and” The Seven Voyages of Sinbad the Sailor” are not actually even from the original Nights, they were added later by translators; however they actually are Middle Eastern Folklore. Early Chinese and Japanese Traditional music of Japan could be considered a highly evolved art form, the history of music in Japan is hard to trace before the Nara(710-794) and Heian(794-1185) periods; but according to Chinese historical accounts it is known that music was an important part of Japanese life from the earliest of times.

Original Japanese music was of a folk music nature, simple and repetitious, until influenced by Chinese music. It was during the Heian period that Museum Collection 5 Chinese instruments were included. From this came distinctly Japanese characteristics of music, also known as hogaku. Gagaku which means elegant or refined music and is intended to envelope the listener and produce an experience of weightlessness, balance, and serenity. This orchestra style of music used musical instruments from three categories, the winds, strings, and percussions.

These instruments included the hichiriki a small cylindrical-bore double reed, the biwa, a four string, fretted, pear-shaped lute and is played with a small plectrum, and the kakko a small, double-headed cylindrical drum, the kakko regulated the tempo. Gagaku’s significance is unrivaled and also credited with being the oldest existing orchestral musical art form in the world as well as one of the most distinctive. Gothic and Late Middle Ages The Salamanca Cathedral. This is actually two buildings built separately one is called the New Cathedral “La Nueva” and the other is the Old Cathedral “La Vieja. Construction began on the original cathedral in the 12th century. The building of the new cathedral began in the 16th and ended in the 18th century. The Old Cathedral is a prime example of Romanic architecture while The New Cathedral is a prime example of Gothic architecture. Much of the cathedral is covered in detailed carvings. The new cathedral was built to stabilize the older cathedral. There is an apparent Islamic influence present when you look at the Salamanca cathedrals; this was not common outside of Spain.

This is a combination of influences and styles, which is what makes this structure so interesting. With Islamic, Romanesque, and late Gothic influence and attention is spectacular. This structure requires a lot of work to maintain, now it’s a prime tourist spot. Museum Collection 6 Baroque Age During the Baroque Ages a man by the name of Caravaggio was a very prominante artist, one of his stand out pieces was entitled Entombment, created in 1603 it was an oil on canvas painting.

This is a painting in which Jesus is the center of the movement in the work everything and everyone else seems to revolve around him. The Renaissance inspired aspects are the religious content and increased perspective. The more Baroque elements are bringing the viewer into the moment and how realistic and natural the figures are. During this time, reformationists were trying to stop Protestantism by making art that was emotional to engage viewers in hopes that they would return to the church. Triangular and diagonal shaping in the painting seem to create movement.

The scene is of John taking Jesus’ body off the cross while other obviously mourn and flail. The painting is intended to evoke emotion from the audience, as if they were involved in the moment. The painting was commissioned by Saint Phillip Neri’s Oratorian order and was finished during 1602–1603 by Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio. Summary This collection was assembled by tying to select pieces from the different time periods that represented the emotional energy of the times, cultural conscience, and style representative of the artist and tools from the period.

The Ludovisi Gaul killing himself and his wife, was chosen to represent the visual arts portion of this collection because of its ability to remain in existence and relevant, while the original was never discovered; this represents a classical, vivid, emotional piece of art that was worthy of preserving. The Pantheon was selected to represent the Museum Collection 7 architectural category because of recognizability. This was a building that was never abandoned since it’s rebuilding, after the original was destroyed. The people of the region throughout the times have saved, maintained, and occupied.

It was eventually taken over by the Christian church, it was given to the Pope by the Emperor of the land. After the renaissance the structure was turned into a tomb, the building still stands today; a fine example of great architecture. The Book of One Thousand and One Nights was an obvious pick because of its transcontinental appeal. This was an Islamic literary work that has been adapted and translated into many languages, works done in the West like Ali Babba and The 40 Thieves and Aladdin have withstood the test of time to become classics; while many people do not even realize their origins and true backgrounds.

The Gagaku style of ancient Chinese and Japanese was selected because of the major affect it had on the music after instruments were employed. The music and culture were tightly intertwined, with the progression of the music it made this bond tighter. I chose the Salamanca Cathedral to also represent the architectural category because of its rich design influence and elegant design features. This structure was actually two separate buildings. The older building used many design features from earlier periods of architecture from other cultures that had transcended continents and much of its owns heritage.

The elegant designs that adorn the building is excellent examples of the craft that the architects, builders, and designers put into the ancient structures; evolving styles, making new styles by combining different cultures, and respecting the heritage of the land at the same time. Caravaggio’s’ Entombment was chosen because of its powerful and moving capabilities. This is a classic piece that represents exactly what the feeling of the time was. It is a vivid and emotion evoking oil painting. Museum Collection 8 References Wikipedia The free encyclopedia. (2007).

Ludovisi Gaul- Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved January 23, 2008, from http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Ludovisi_Gaul Wikipedia The free encyclopedia. (2007-2008). One Thousand and One Nights. Retrieved January 23, 2008, from http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/The_Book_of_One Thousand_and_One_Nights Wikipedia The free encyclopedia. (2007-2008). Pantheon, Rome. Retrieved January 12, 2008, from http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Pantheon%2C_Rome Wikipedia The free encyclopedia. (2007-2008). Traditional Japanese Music: Gagaku. Retrieved January 20, 2008, from http://en. ikipedia. org/wiki/Traditional_ Japanese_Music:_Gagaku#Gagaku_Instruments Wikipedia The free encyclopedia. (2007-2008). Gothic Architecture. Retrieved January 16, 2008, from http://simple. wikipedia. org/wiki/Gothic_architecture Caravaggio. (2007-2008). Caravaggio. Retrieved January 22, 2008, from http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Caravaggio Museum Collection 9 Wikipedia The free encyclopedia. (2007-2008). The Entombment of Christ (Caravaggio). Retrieved January 22, 2008, from http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/The_Entombment_of_Christ_ (Caravaggio)

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