Presentation Outline 1. Background Introduction- How curriculum is developed. 2. Adapting Grade 2 curriculum for writing skill development 3. General English Language Arts Curriculum Standards 4. Languages Other Than English Curriculum Standards 5. Specific Performance Indicators: Writing 6. Literacy Competencies: Writing 7. Second Language Learning Standards for ESL Elementary 8. Sample Classroom Tasks in ESL by English Proficiency Level 9. Additional Information •Activities •Tools •Rubrics/Assessment Practices •Web Resources 10. Resources 11. Overheads Tables 1 General English Language Arts Curriculum Standards •Tables 2 Languages Other Than English Curriculum Standards •Tables 3 Specific Performance Indicators: Writing •Tables 4 Literacy Competencies: Writing •Tables 5 Second Language Learning Standards for ESL Elementary •Tables 6 Sample Classroom Tasks in ESL by English Proficiency Level “I would rather face the challenge of turning lead into gold than face the challenge of teaching in today’s classroom. ” -Unknown Language Arts Curriculum Adaptations for Second Language Learners: Writing.
At some point during their teaching career many educators will face the challenge of teaching a student whose native language is other than English. This educational challenge is not exclusive, and can be encountered on any level of the educational environment for both the public and private school sectors. For those teachers who have never taught students of this nature, the first question that pops into their mind will be “What Do I Do Now? ” Because of the current demographic background within today’s classrooms that re already over crowded, under funded, and laced with learning distracters, the feeling of being overwhelmed is only natural. To resolve these issues there are several steps educators can use to create a classroom environment that is conducive to learning for all students. As any professional educator knows the key to quality learning begins with a strong learning plan. This plan begins with adapting the curriculum to satisfy the needs of the learners. Leaders within the field of second language education argue that older students are more capable of learning a second language (Diaz-Rico, & Weed, 2006).
This is because by the time they reach their early teens and adulthood they are familiar with the basic concepts of reading, writing, and speaking in their native language. For example if you show a student a ball and tell them the name in the new language the student is already familiar with a ball. However, if the student is younger they may be unfamiliar with the visual aid used to demonstrate the new word in the new language resulting in the student being unable to make this association.
This can be a particularly difficult problem for teaching writing skills for second language learners in grades K-3. Now for those who currently teach grades K-3 know that this difficulty is not exclusive to second language learners only and many of the suggestion that will be discussed can be adapted to the general education classroom as well. This presentation will examine the methods necessary for adapting language arts curriculum for second language learners in the subject area of writing skills development.
The main points that will be covered are; •General English Language Arts Curriculum Standards •Languages Other Than English Curriculum Standards •Adapting Standards for Accommodating Developmental Writing Skills •Grade 2 ?Specific Performance Indicators: Writing ?Literacy Competencies: Writing ?Second Language Learning Standards for ESL Elementary ?Sample Classroom Tasks in ESL by English Proficiency Level •Additional Information ?Activities ?Tools ?Rubrics/Assessment Practices ?Web Resources General English Language Arts Curriculum Standards
No matter where you teach each state provides educators with a set of general curriculum standards or guidelines based upon specific content areas or grade levels identifying the skills each student is required to learn in order to successfully master the content areas material. Every state utilizes several factors in developing their core curriculum standards; Federal and State Laws, Educational Philosophy, Population Demographics, and Performance Indicators. If we examine Table 1 it outlines the basic curriculum standards for general English language arts in accordance with all PreK-12 grade students within the state of New York.
These curriculum guidelines are applied to all grade levels and make no distinction between levels of learning, nor learning ability. •Federal and State Laws The policies that govern schools are developed through legislation at the federal, state, and local levels. The purpose of this legislation is to develop a safe and orderly environment that is conducive to learning for the students it supports. This legislation determines the rights, responsibilities, standards, and the financial support of the educational system (Lapp, Flood, & Farnam, 1996).
An example of educational policy can be seen in the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 which covers teacher qualifications and student assessment and performance (DOE). While the policy may be difficult for some to swallow at first, these policies help to establish a balance between students, teachers, and administrators to ensure there is a positive impact on the educational system. •Educational Philosophy There are many different styles of educational theories, teachers cannot simply go into a classroom cold and begin teaching, they need to develop and institute an educational philosophy.
Teachers need to have a plan for their teaching method just as much as for the curriculum and lessons they develop for their students (Echevarria, & Graves, 2003). This can be a key resource for teachers no matter what their current experience. The same is true for state and local school districts whose educational philosophy can have a direct effect on the educational standards that are adapted based upon the students needs. For example the State of New York philosophical beliefs (NYSED, 2005) are based on the following criteria; ?
Integrates with other State Education Department curriculum materials, such as The Preliminary Draft Framework, The Learning Standards, and The Resource Guide for English Language Arts; The Elementary Literacy Profile; and new assessments at Grades 4, 8, and 11 ? Recognizes that English Language Arts learners must be exposed to regular and varied opportunities to read (25 books or their equivalent per year), write (1000 words or more per month), listen (daily), and speak (daily) ? Recognizes that teachers in all content areas share responsibility for the development of reading, writing, listening and speaking competencies ?
Suggests the recursive nature of language arts development across the continuum from Pre-Kindergarten to Grade 12 ? Affirms that all students are able to achieve competency in the presence of skilled instruction, adequate time for learning, varied and/or specialized resources, and additional support ? Recognizes that equity and access to technology and other resources must be assured at state, regional, and local levels ? Reflects an understanding of the developmental needs of students as they work to achieve competency in language arts ?
Focuses on students as active learners, responsible for and knowledgeable about their own learning. •Population Demographics Many assume that population demographics have very little to do with curriculum adaptation. However, factors such as the language spoken at home, number of ESL/ELL students in the community, and other various factors that identify students and their learning needs can be a determining factor in curriculum adaptation (Wallace, 2004). Without understanding the student background it is impossible to properly develop effective learning strategies. Performance Indicators Performance indicators will include state standardized test scores, local assessments as well as any other identifiable factor that either determines the student’s ability or lack of to achieve mastery of the curriculums material (Ovando, Collier, & Combs, 2006). Languages Other Than English Curriculum Standards As stated in Table 2, these curriculum standards are specifically designed to allow for adaptation to language curriculum for content areas outside the normal English instructional classroom such as Spanish and French classes.
The purpose is to provide a cultural understanding and exchange in order to develop communication skills within that language. Adapting Standards for Accommodating Developmental Writing Skills For many educators developing curriculum is a two step process; adaptation, and alignment. As we see in Tables 3-5 the curriculum standards have been adapted to accommodate Grade 2 students for both the general education and second language learners. Many of the same learning techniques that are applied for native speaking students can be utilized for non-native speakers in early-age learners.
Table overview for Grade 2 writing skills •Specific Performance Indicators: Writing Table 3 outlines skills necessary to develop content mastery based on specific performance indicators. •Literacy Competencies: Writing Table 4 identifies common literacy competency skills for all four ELA standards as applied to writing skill development. •Second Language Learning Standards for ESL Elementary Table 5 outlines the specific performance indicators based upon the assigned task requirements for grade 2 students in second language instruction. Sample Classroom Tasks in ESL by English Proficiency Level Table 6 provides examples of recommended tasks and specific activities common used to teach grade 2 second language learners based upon standards and performance indicators after being adapted to the writing curriculum. Addition Information Activities- Classroom activities should reflect the requirements of the adapted curriculum as well as satisfy the performance indicators in order to develop fundamental writing skills and content knowledge (Echevarria, Vogt, & Short, 2004).
Tools- As seen in Table 6 KWL was used to create a chart reflecting the students’ prior knowledge and their questions about the topic. Tools such as this can be easily adapted and applied to help students develop skill mastery (GCU, 2007). Rubrics/Assessment Practices- Rubrics can be particularly helpful in determining students writing abilities and improvement. Also it will allow the student to understand what is expected of them in order to properly complete the assigned tasks (NWREL, 2003).
However, it is not always necessary to provide the students with a copy of the rubric especially in early-age learners because it can add to the confusion. Web Resources- Many state and federal websites provide resources that can be utilized in the adaptation of curriculum as well as in lesson planning. Teachers are encouraged to seek out additional resources that will benefit the learning environment. Conclusion In conclusion adapting curriculum to satisfy the needs of the student can be overwhelming for first time second language teachers.
Fortunately many states provide exceptional curriculum standards necessary for adapting and aligning curriculum standards to the classroom. By developing a plan of action and utilizing the tools and necessary resources available to educators the quality of the classroom environment can be increased exponentially. Resources Diaz-Rico, L. T. , & Weed, K. (2006). The cross-cultural, language, and academic Development handbook (3rd ed. ). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. ISBN: 0205443257 Echevarria, J. , & Graves, A. (2003). Sheltered content instruction (2nd ed. ). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Echevarria, J. , Vogt, M. & Short, D. (2004). Making content comprehensible for English learners (2nd ed. ). Boston: Pearson Education. ISBN 0-205-38641-5 GCU (2007). ESL 523 Lecture Four: Using Data to Align Teaching Strategies with Proficiency Standards. Retrieved April 2, 2007 from www. mygcu. edu Lapp, D. , Flood, J. , & Farnam, N. (1996). Content area reading and learning (2nd ed. ). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Allyn & Bacon. ISBN: 0-205-18893-1 New York State Department of Education (NYSED). (2005). English Language Arts Resource Guide. Retrieved June 26, 2007 from http://www. emsc. nysed. gov/ciai/ela/pub/ccela. df Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory (NWREL). (2003). General Principles for Teaching ELL Students. Retrieved June 25, 2007 from http://www. nwrel. org/request/2003may/general. html Ovando, C. J. , Collier, V. P. , & Combs, M. C. (2006). Bilingual and ESL classrooms: Teaching in multicultural contexts (4th ed. ). New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN: 0073126497 Smith, C. B. (2003). Vocabulary Development: Elaboration for Writing. (ED480888). Retrieved June 26, 2007 from http://eric. ed. gov/ Thompson, L. Dr. (n. d. ). Literacy Development for English Language Learners: Classroom Challenges in the NCLB Age.
Retrieved June 26, 2007 from http://www. eslmag. com/modules US Department of Education (DOE). (2005). No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. (NCLB). Retrieved June 26, 2006 from www. ed. gov Wallace, S. (2004). Effective Instructional Strategies for English Language Learners in Mainstream Classrooms. Retrieved June 26, 2007 from http://www. newhorizons. org/spneeds/ell/wallace. htm Zehler, A. M. (1994). Working with English Language Learners: Strategies for Elmentary and Middle School Teachers. Program Information Guide Series. No 19. (ED381022). Retrieved June 26, 2007 from http://eric. ed. ov/ Table 1: General English Language Arts Curriculum Standards (NYSED, 2005). Standard 1: Language for Information and Understanding Students will listen, speak, read, and write for information and understanding. As listeners and readers, students will collect data, facts, and ideas; discover relationships, concepts, and generalizations; and use knowledge generated from oral, written, and electronically produced texts. As speakers and writers, they will use oral and written language that follows the accepted conventions of the English language to acquire, interpret, apply, and transmit information.
Standard 2: Language for Literary Response and Expression Students will read and listen to oral, written, and electronically produced texts and performances from American and world literature; relate texts and performances to their own lives; and develop an understanding of the diverse social, historical, and cultural dimensions the texts and performances represent. As speakers and writers, students will use oral and written language that follows the accepted conventions of the English language for self-expression and artistic creation.
Standard 3: Language for Critical Analysis and Evaluation Students will listen, speak, read, and write for critical analysis and evaluation. As listeners and readers, students will analyze experiences, ideas, information, and issues presented by others using a variety of established criteria. As speakers and writers, they will use oral and written language that follows the accepted conventions of the English language to present, from a variety of perspectives, their opinions and judgments on experiences, ideas, information and issues.
Standard 4: Language for Social Interaction Students will listen, speak, read, and write for social interaction. Students will use oral and written language that follows the accepted conventions of the English language for effective social communication with a wide variety of people. As readers and listeners, they will use the social communications of others to enrich their understanding of people and their views. Table 2: Languages Other Than English Curriculum Standards (NYSED, 2005). Standard 1: Communication Skills
Students will be able to use a language other than English for communication. Standard 2: Cultural Understanding Students will develop cross-cultural skills and understandings. Table 3: Grade 2 – Specific Performance Indicators: Writing (NYSED, 2005). The grade-specific performance indicators that grade 2 students demonstrate as they learn to write include; Standard 1: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for information and understanding. •Use two sources of information in writing a report Take notes to record facts by following teacher directions, with assistance •State a main idea and support it with facts, with assistance •Use organizational patterns, such as time/order, for expository writing •Connect personal experiences to new information from school subject areas, with assistance •Use spelling resources, such as dictionaries, word walls, and/or computer software, to spell words correctly •Produce clear, well-organized, short reports to demonstrate understanding of a topic •Support explanations with evidence from text Maintain a portfolio that includes informational writing as a method of reviewing work with teachers and parents/caregivers, with assistance Standard 2: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for literary response and expression. •Develop original literary texts that ?create characters, simple plot, and setting, with assistance ? use rhythm and rhyme to create short poems and songs, with assistance ? use descriptive language •Write interpretive and responsive essays that ?identify the title, author, and illustrator ?describe literary elements, such as plot and characters, with assistance ? express a personal response to literature Create clear, well-organized responses to stories read or listened to, supporting understanding of genres, characters, and events with details from the story, with assistance •Create imaginative stories and personal narratives that show development and organization, with assistance •Use resources such as personal experiences to stimulate own writing •Use a computer to create, research, and interpret literary texts •Maintain a portfolio that includes imaginative writing as a method of reviewing work with teachers and parents/caregivers Standard 3: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for critical analysis and evaluation. Use prewriting tools, such as semantic webs and concept maps, to organize ideas and information •State a main idea and provide supporting details from the text •Use relevant examples, such as reasons to support ideas, with assistance •Express opinions and make judgments that demonstrate a personal point of view, with assistance Table 3: Continued (NYSED, 2005). Analyze and evaluate the author’s use of plot and character in written and visual text •Use effective vocabulary in expository writing, with assistance •Use details from stories or informational texts to predict events •Maintain a portfolio that includes written analysis and evaluation as a method of reviewing work with teachers and parents/caregivers Standard 4: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for social interaction. Share the process of writing with peers and adults; for example, write with a partner •Respect the age, gender, social position, and cultural traditions of the recipient •Use the tone, vocabulary, and sentence structure of informal conversation, with assistance •Maintain a portfolio that includes writing for social interaction as a method of reviewing work with teachers and parents/caregivers Table 4: Grade 2- Literacy Competencies: Writing (NYSED, 2005). The writing competencies common to all four ELA standards that students are developing during grade 2 are; Spelling Spell correctly previously studied words (e. g. , grade-level multisyllabic, decodable words; irregularly spelled content and high-frequency words) in writing •Use spelling patterns (e. g. , word families) in writing •Represent all the sounds in a word when spelling independently Handwriting •Write legibly all uppercase and lowercase manuscript letters Composition •Write in response to the reading of imaginative and informational texts •Write a variety of compositions with assistance, using different organizational patterns (e. g. informational reports, such as compare/contrast, and sequence of events; correspondence; and imaginative stories) •Write original text using the writing process (e. g. , prewriting, drafting, revising, proofreading, editing) •Make judgments about relevant and irrelevant content to include in writing •Write sentences in logical order and use paragraphs to organize topics •Use capitalization, punctuation, and spelling rules to produce final products •Vary the formality of language depending on purpose of writing (e. g. , friendly letter, report) •Begin to convey personal voice in writing Participate in writing conferences with teachers and peers to improve own writing and that of others Motivation to Read •Write voluntarily to communicate ideas and emotions to a variety of audiences •Write voluntarily for different purposes (e. g. , tell stories, share information, give directions) •Share writing with others (e. g. , participate in author’s circle) Table 5: Second Language Learning Standards for ESL Elementary Grades 2 (NYSED, 2005). STANDARD 1: Students will listen, speak, read, and write in English for information and understanding.
Students learning English as a second language will use English to acquire, interpret, apply, and transmit information for content area learning and personal use. They will develop and use skills and strategies appropriate to their level of English proficiency to collect data, facts, and ideas; discover relationships, concepts, and generalizations; and use knowledge generated from oral, written, and electronically produced texts. ESL Performance Indicators: Listening (L) Speaking (S) Reading (R) Writing (W) Standard 1: Performance Indicators 1. Identify and use reading and listening strategies to make text comprehensible and meaningful.
Such strategies include skimming; scanning; previewing; reviewing; discussing; listening selectively; listening for a specific purpose; listening for main ideas and details; using structural and context clues, cognates, format, sequence, and an understanding of letter-sound relationships to decode difficult words. (L, R) 2. Read, gather, view, listen to, organize, discuss, and interpret information related to academic content areas from various sources. Such sources include reference books, magazines, textbooks, the Internet, audio and media presentations, oral interviews, charts, graphs, maps, and diagrams. L, S, R, W) 3. Select information appropriate to the purpose of the investigation, and relate ideas from one written or spoken source to another. (L, S, R, W) 4. Compare, contrast, and categorize, to gain a deeper understanding of information and objects. (L, S, R, W) 5. Formulate, ask, and respond to questions to obtain, clarify, and extend information and meaning. (L, S, R, W) 6. Make and support inferences about information and ideas with reference to features in oral and written text. Such features include vocabulary, facts, sequence, and details. (L, S, R, W) 7.
Present information clearly in a variety of oral and written forms for different audiences and purposes related to all academic content areas. Such forms include retelling, paraphrases, summaries, stories, brief reports, posters, picture summaries, charts, and other graphics. (S, W) 8. Select a focus, organization, and point of view for oral and written presentations. (S, W) 9. Convey information, using a variety of organizational patterns and structures. Such patterns and structures include chronological order, cause and effect, similarities and differences, and general to specific presentation. (S, W) 10.
Distinguish between fact and opinion, and relevant and irrelevant information. (L, S, R, W) 11. Use the process of prewriting, drafting, revising, and proofreading (the “writing process”) to produce well-constructed informational texts. (L, S, R, W) Table 5: Continued (NYSED, 2005). 12. Convey information and ideas through spoken and written language, using conventions and features of American English. Such spoken language features include appropriate grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation, and intonation. Such written language features include appropriate grammar, vocabulary, correct spelling, punctuation, and capitalization, and paragraphing. L, S, R, W) 13. Engage in collaborative activities through a variety of student groupings to read, gather, share, discuss, interpret, organize, and present information. Such groupings include small groups, cooperative learning groups, and process writing groups, research groups, and interest groups. (L, S, R, W) 14. Consult print and non-print resources (e. g. , audio/visual media, family) in the native language when needed. (L, S, R) 15. Apply self-monitoring and self-correcting strategies for accurate language production and oral and written presentation, using established criteria for effective presentation of information.
Such strategies include referring to illustrations, asking questions, starting over, rephrasing, and exploring alternative ways of saying things. (L, S, R, W) 16. Apply learning strategies to acquire information and make oral and written texts comprehensible and meaningful. Such strategies include asking questions; using prior knowledge, graphic organizers, and context cues; planning; note taking; questioning; exploring cognates and root words; and applying ideas to new settings or experiences. (L, S, R, W)
Table 6: Grade 2- Standard 1: Sample Classroom Tasks in ESL by English Proficiency Level (Zehler, 1994). Beginning Task 1- Activity 1: Students view, listen to and/or read simple books about bats (e. g. , Screech Amazing Bats; Bats; Zipping, Zapping, Zooming Bats). Teacher displays four sheets of poster paper, each bearing one of the following illustrated titles: “What bats Eat,” “What Bats Do,” “What Bats Look Like,” “Where Bats Live. ” Students look at a variety of picture books and draw and label (with teacher’s help) interesting facts.
Class collaborates to categorize information (i. e. , attach it to the appropriate poster). Students create their own illustrated bat books, using a template provided by the teacher. Performance indicators: 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 15, 16 Intermediate Task 1-Activity 2: Teacher shows pictures of bats. Class creates a KWL chart reflecting students’ prior knowledge and their questions about the topic. Teacher makes available a variety of picture books on bats. While students look through the books and discuss interesting finds with each other, teacher writes down comments verbatim.
Teacher helps students share all their interesting facts and observations with the class as they enter them on poster paper, as described in Beginning task. Teacher and class read (identifying factual vs. fictional elements) or sing “B-bb-bbats! ” Students continue to add to posters, and they make their own illustrated books about bats by selecting and paraphrasing a variety of categorized information. Performance indicators: 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 15, 16 Advanced Task 1- Activity 3: Students complete Intermediate task.
They seek additional information electronically to add to their books. Small groups collaborate to create classroom presentations about bats, using the information in their books. As part of the process, teacher and students design a rubric to guide the groups in evaluating the quality of the written and oral presentations. Teams of “bat experts” visit other classrooms to present their information and answer questions. Performance indicators: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16