Health, Safety and Environment Prospects in Onshore Oil and Gas Industry (Jojoba Shah) Abstract: The foreseeable future of any country depends on Oil and Gas Industry as the energy requirement is the prime objective of any society for development. India, being a developing nation has initiated many activities like crude oil production, processing, handling, storage, transportation and retailing.
The main challenge in this field is to minimize the impact these activities have on the environment as well as on human beings while meeting the nation’s energy demands. The upstream activity of oil and gas reserves had many effects like oil spills, damaged land, accidents, fires and incidents of air, water and noise pollution. Management of environment, health and safety has been a very significant issue due to regulations in force, stricter monitoring by concerned authorities, concern by common man and interest taken by industry for its sun. Vial and growth. Thus the paper presents the rising effect of the unfriendly activities in onshore oil and gas sector which are affecting the quality of environment as well as human beings and the ways of mitigation or prevention of the various risks associated with petroleum industry, outlining the commercial, technical and social challenges that could influence the future context of health safety and environment management in the industry. 1. Introduction The significance of petroleum in world economy evolved slowly and gradually.
Coal and whale oil filled the need for increased energy which was led by The Industrial Revolution. Later on, it was discovered that kerosene can be extracted from crude oil and can be used as lighting and heating fuel. By 20th century demand of petroleum increased significantly and thus, became the most valuable commodity in the world market. With the increasing demand, Oil and gas operations are conducted in every corner of the world starting from Alaska to Australia, Peru to China, Arctic to desert, and Mangrove to offshore.
Dependence of society on oil and gas has been increasing rapidly which involves the processes like exploration, development, production and transportation of hydrocarbons. Disaster can strike any time in the oil and gas industry and seldom they does. Such disasters occur throughout the world both onshore and offshore which prove to be hazardous and possesses high risks of fire, explosions, toxic releases and environment pollution if proper recitations are not taken while carrying out any of the activity related to petroleum or crude oil.
Major accidents like Iambi-Ran oil spill, Jasper OIC Depot, Harlan (Ammonia release) and many others have shaken the confidence of the public about their safety and safety of their property and environment. Some companies are even closed down due to poor safety plans and environmental performance and because of these reasons Major Disaster Government Authorities, Human Activist Groups and Corporate Houses in many countries including India have taken numerous steps to kick after the major mishaps which cause loss of human life, property and environmental damage.
For this, various efficient and effective HOSE Management Systems are setup which comprises of HOSE policy, safe work procedures, permit to work system, plant change procedure, audit system, accident/incident reporting and investigation, training of workforce, medical monitoring of employees and many more.
There are various ways to look into oil and gas perspectives: From personal viewpoint, fuels provide us with source of heat during cold weather and cool in hot weather, through these we can cook food, heat water, generate electricity, power appliances and travel room one place to another but increase in the price of these fuels greatly affects the individual. Petrochemical feedstock are used for manufacturing fertilizers, fabrics, synthetic rubber and plastics.
They are important part of personal and household items to heavy duty industrial goods; oil and gas are the raw materials. From a business perspective: As world energy markets are continuously expanding, companies spend billions of dollars annually to maintain and increase their oil and gas production. From Geopolitical Perspective: large quantities of oil and gas export and import create trade to maximize revenues and improve trade balances. And at the same time, minimize trade deficits and ensure a steady and reliable Oil supply respectively.
From internal policy perspective: to develop the resources and attain long- term sustainable benefits and to reduce their dependence on imported oil which leads to long-term contracts, both within individual countries and on the world. From a health, safety and environmental (HOSE) perspective, there is a continuous concern for safety in oil and gas operations, the impacts that various projects have on environment, the possibility of oil spills and effect of allotment such as carbon dioxide on climate and air quality and on individuals.
Health, Safety and Environment With the daily processes involving exploration, excavation, transportation and distribution of highly combustible products, the petroleum industry is an extremely high risk industry in terms of the likelihood of large-scale industrial accidents and the potential severity of the economic and social harms that these accidents can inflict.
The concern for the Health, Safety and Environment starts from the conceptual stage of a project to operation and abandonment stage because the hydrocarbon and petroleum products assesses a countless hazard if not handled in a safe manner and can even lead to loss of life and property. That’s why lot of investment and importance is given on learning and implementing methods to take care of Health, safety and environment all over the hydrocarbon industry.
Health, Safety and Environment norms and practices are followed at every stage of plant’s life cycle which takes into reflection, the safety of human beings and environment with the help of the right type of precautionary steps and providing a base of satisfactory achievable working conditions (HOSE Executive). The basic objective of the framework is to educate the manager on the health, safety and environmental aspects of successful business and provide them with the initial instructions to set up an effective and efficient management system in a petroleum industry.
The responsibility of a petroleum manager is to be familiar with the regulatory requirements and comply with the same. The major accidents that take place in petroleum industry are due to errors or opposed conditions and/or management system breakdown. Challenges involved in having an effect on health, safety and environment conditions are: o have a proactive HOSE management, to integrate HOSE with Business, to control injury/loss of life and co-workers, to provide workman compensation and many more.
The various accidents occur in onshore industry like fire and explosions, collisions, fatigue and corrosion, toxic dispersion, storage problem including contamination, salt dome accidents, overexertion while lifting pipes/ ducts/ bars/boxes/bags/ machine parts, fall from scaffold/ stairs/ ladder, motor vehicle accident, drilling accidents, exposure to noise and many more and they can cause huge loss to direct and indirect cost like loss of life o self or co-workers, workman compensation, cost of injury and investigation, loss of property and material, loss of profits, punitive sanctions and fires, closure/shutdown of installation, public litigation, environmental pollution, ecological damage, loss of business and shareholders wrath. Regulatory agencies had a significant contribution in the promotion of industrial safety in the petroleum industry over years . These regulatory agencies lay down certain rules/regulations which are the minimum basic requirements that are very important in the safe design and operations of industrial units.